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Brain Regions & Their General Function Frontal Lobes Higher cognitive functions Reasoning Parts of speech ST memory Attention Emotional inhibition Parietal Lobes Movement & body awareness Orientation & location Recognition & association Arousal & perception of stimuli
Brain Regions & Their General Function Occipital Lobes Visual processing Arousal Temporal Lobes Memory Comprehension Major convergence zone Cerebellum Balance Motor sequencing Brain Stem Primary arousal Consciousness
Preliminary processing and integration of all sensory inputs
A Single Neuron The cell body receives information from other cells connected to its dendrites. The other cells’ signals vote on whether this cell should fire a signal. The cell body develops an electrical charge or signal in response to the votes. The signal travels down the axon to other cells to vote as well. The waxing and waning of these voting charges creates the EEG.
Basic EEG Morphology Beta waves 15-36hz High beta is associated with anxious hyperactive thinking Low beta is associated with alert active things SMR 12-15 hz Associated with external focus Alpha waves 8-12hz Associated with relaxed awareness Theta waves 4-7hz Associated with internal focus Delta waves .5-4hz Associated with deep, dreamless sleep
Sterman’s Research On Alpha & Arousal Pilots who were able to consistently return to a resting alpha state after engaging a task had greater stamina and performed better than pilots who did not (Sterman, 1995) Arousal should vary and adjust with task complexity Withdraw Sensorimotor Inputs:SMR appears Withdraw Cognitive Processing: Alpha appears Withdraw vigilance: Theta appears (Sterman, 1994)
Alcohol Abuse Normal 38 y/o: 17 years of heavy weekend use
Marijuana Normal Underside 28 y/o: 10 years of mostly weekend use; underside surface view decreased pfc & temporal lobe activity
ADD Spect Studies ADD at concentration: note marked decrease prefrontal cortex and left temporal lobe ADD at rest: note mild decrease prefrontal area
QEEG - The Brainmap The brainmap is much like a weather map It provides information about what frequencies or component bands are high or low at different locations
Distributions of Disorder LD often appears as posterior elevated delta ADHD often appears as elevated frontal theta Depression often appears as elevated central or frontal alpha Anxiety often appears as elevated frontal beta often in conjunction with diminished alpha Depression often also appears as more slowing on the left, while anxiety appears as increased activity on the right
Discriminants Discriminants indicate probability of a problem present Discriminants are not indicators of severity of a health challenge We match symptoms and behaviors to discriminants Discriminants are for the purpose of NFB training, not medication or medical intervention
Case Study OneClients Mother’s Comments In 8 sessions I have noticed an extreme increase in her joy. Her attention span has also increased. This is our first experience with NIT, and we have been pleased. We didn’t really notice a noticeable difference in Hannah until after the 5th session. But the difference was a big one—her anger transformed into happiness. She also made a new friend and has kept this new friend, without her losing interest. Her ability to sit still has increased. It has been very helpful for Hannah’s ADHD. We would definitely recommend this service to others. 3 weeks after sessions ended Hannah has been on no medication for her ADHD, besides the TravaCor Jr. supplements, and doing very well in school. It's hard to remember the last time she was this happy. Her concentration and comprehension has improved immensely.
Case Study Two57 year old female presenting with depression & anxiety (trained 10 sessions 3 X weekly) Before After
Case Study Two I thought you may like to know some of my observations re the NIT. Firstly I would like to thank you very much for your gentle kind support of me from the beginning. As you know I arrived rather anxious and burnt out from years of teaching in SA. You made me feel so special and relaxed. Once I realised that you were not judging me because of my `sieve brain` I began to enjoy our time together. About half way through the 10 sessions, I felt a new sense of relaxation and rejuvenation. I know I have benefitted from these sessions and would love to keep them up. But it is not to be as I will return to SA but with a new, revived brain. Thanks again for everything.
Case Study Three4 year old boy presenting with axonal motor neuropathy, bilateral hip dysplasia, and bilateral cub feet My son Wyatt, age 4, has had a good experience. He was diagnosed with axonal motor neuropathy affecting the legs, which made his legs get really tired pretty quickly. He also as born with bilateral hip dysplasia and bilateral cub feet and has spent nearly his entire life in either casts or braces. Wyatt also has a syrinx in his spine. After about 4 sessions of NIT Wyatt started walking up stairs right, left, right, left, whereas before he would walk up stairs left, left, left, unless I asked him to use his right. The biggest difference has been in his stamina. His level of fatigue has decreased tremendously. His coordination, balance, gait, and stamina have all improved tremendously after 8 sessions. Also, Wyatt has recently been practicing standing on his hands, which he is able to balance on for a couple of seconds. He had never attempted this before. He just seems to have more control over his body, and he knows it.
Case Study Four51 year old male presenting with depression & poor memory Before After
Remember The function of your brain determines your level of consciousness and your experience of the world. YOU are not your brain, not a product of its collective function nor its learned and habitually expressed patterns of behavior—these will change over time. YOU are the uniting principle behind all these things. You should be running your brain, not the other way round!