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Nfb What Why How

  1. 1. Understanding The Brain/Body Connection<br />An Overview of Brain Mapping and NeuroIntegration Technology    <br />
  2. 2. The Brain IS…<br /><ul><li>…the most complex structure in the known universe.
  3. 3. …like an ecosystem—dynamic and adaptable.
  4. 4. …capable of learning and re-organizing at any stage of life.
  5. 5. …the greatest consumer of glucose and oxygen in the body.
  6. 6. …in control of the body.</li></li></ul><li>The Brain is NOT…<br /><ul><li>…the Mind.
  7. 7. …hard-wired after a certain age.
  8. 8. …the sole product of either nature or nurture.</li></li></ul><li>Brain Regions & Their General Function<br />Frontal Lobes<br />Higher cognitive functions<br />Reasoning<br />Parts of speech<br />ST memory <br />Attention <br />Emotional inhibition<br />Parietal Lobes <br />Movement & body <br /> awareness <br />Orientation & location<br />Recognition & association<br />Arousal & perception of <br /> stimuli<br />
  9. 9. Brain Regions & Their General Function<br />Occipital Lobes<br />Visual processing<br />Arousal<br />Temporal Lobes<br />Memory<br />Comprehension<br />Major convergence zone<br />Cerebellum<br />Balance<br />Motor sequencing<br />Brain Stem<br />Primary arousal<br />Consciousness<br />
  10. 10. Thalamus<br /><ul><li>Sensory way station
  11. 11. Preliminary processing and integration of all sensory inputs</li></li></ul><li>A Single Neuron<br />The cell body receives information from other cells connected to its dendrites.<br />The other cells’ signals vote on whether this cell should fire a signal.<br />The cell body develops an electrical charge or signal in response to the votes.<br />The signal travels down the axon to other cells to vote as well.<br />The waxing and waning of these voting charges creates the EEG. <br />
  12. 12. Basic EEG Morphology<br />Beta waves 15-36hz <br />High beta is associated with anxious hyperactive thinking<br />Low beta is associated with alert active things<br />SMR 12-15 hz<br />Associated with external focus<br />Alpha waves 8-12hz <br />Associated with relaxed awareness<br />Theta waves 4-7hz <br />Associated with internal focus<br />Delta waves .5-4hz <br />Associated with deep, dreamless sleep<br />
  13. 13. Arousal Theory & EEG<br />Alpha Waves<br /> - Thalamus <br /> - Attention & self awareness<br />Beta Waves<br /> - Cortex<br /> - Processing<br />Theta Waves<br /> - Limbic System <br /> - Memory & emotions<br />- Coordination of processing<br />Delta Waves<br /> - Brain stem <br /> - Continuity & sleep<br />
  14. 14. NeuroPlasticity<br /><ul><li>‘Neurons that fire together wire together.’(D.O.Hebb - 1949 “Hebbian Learning”)
  15. 15. Our brains are constantly changing.
  16. 16. Every experience, thought, action and emotion actually changes the structure of our brains.
  17. 17. There are more possible ways to connect the brain’s neurons than there are atoms in the universe.</li></li></ul><li>Plasticity and Use Dependency<br /><ul><li>The brain is plastic.
  18. 18. It responds to demand by increasing efficiency
  19. 19. Habit formation
  20. 20. Use it or lose it.
  21. 21. Decline in the variety of stimulus, drives a decline in use, which drives a decline in capacity.
  22. 22. Years in formal education directly correlate to a reduction in age-related cognitive decline independent of age, birthplace occupation, income or native language.</li></li></ul><li>Conditioning<br /><ul><li>I Pavlov and his DAWGS
  23. 23. B F Skinner: reward-based reinforcement learning can explain much of behavior </li></ul> (Skinner – 193; Thorndike – 1911; Pavlov - 1905)<br /><ul><li>Skinner showed that reward governs much of human and animal behavior
  24. 24. He discovered operant conditioning</li></li></ul><li>Why NeuroIntegration?<br /><ul><li>Interacts directly with behavior of cortex bypassing consciously held agendas
  25. 25. Utilizes the principles by which the brain learns: engage, reward, repeat and re-enforce
  26. 26. Drives plastic change
  27. 27. Easy to participate
  28. 28. Lasting change: THE BRAIN LEARNS! </li></li></ul><li>Sterman’s Research On Alpha & Arousal<br />Pilots who were able to consistently return to a resting alpha state after engaging a task had greater stamina and performed better than pilots who did not (Sterman, 1995)<br />Arousal should vary and adjust with task complexity<br />Withdraw Sensorimotor Inputs:SMR appears<br />Withdraw Cognitive Processing: Alpha appears<br />Withdraw vigilance: Theta appears (Sterman, 1994)<br />
  29. 29. Brain Imaging & Mapping<br />QEEG (quantitative EEG)<br />SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography)<br />MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)<br />fMRI (functional MRI)<br />PET (positron emission tomography)<br />CAT scan (computer axial tomography)<br />
  30. 30. Alcohol Abuse<br />Normal<br />38 y/o: 17 years of heavy weekend use<br />
  31. 31. Marijuana<br />Normal Underside<br />28 y/o: 10 years of mostly weekend use; underside surface view decreased pfc & temporal lobe activity<br />
  32. 32. ADD Spect Studies<br />ADD at concentration: note marked decrease prefrontal cortex and left temporal lobe <br />ADD at rest: note mild decrease prefrontal area <br />
  33. 33. QEEG - The Brainmap<br />The brainmap is much like a weather map<br />It provides information about what frequencies or component bands are high or low at different locations <br />
  34. 34. Distributions of Disorder<br />LD often appears as posterior elevated delta<br />ADHD often appears as elevated frontal theta<br />Depression often appears as elevated central or frontal alpha<br />Anxiety often appears as elevated frontal beta often in conjunction with diminished alpha<br />Depression often also appears as more slowing on the left, while anxiety appears as increased activity on the right<br />
  35. 35. Discriminants<br />Discriminants indicate probability of a problem present<br />Discriminants are not indicators of severity of a health challenge<br />We match symptoms and behaviors to discriminants <br />Discriminants are for the purpose of NFB training, not medication or medical intervention<br />
  36. 36. Emotional Analysis<br />
  37. 37. Cognitive Analysis<br />Cognitive analysis indicates probability of a processing problem present<br />We match subjective complaints to formal scientific categories<br />
  38. 38. Before and AfterAfter 40 sessions<br /><ul><li>“Normal” known
  39. 39. Most conditions have a typical pattern of departure from normal, which is the cause of the subjective experience
  40. 40. Train to return to normal
  41. 41. As function normalizes, perception and experience change and symptoms lessen</li></ul>Pre Map with high theta<br />Post map with normal theta<br />
  42. 42. Case Study One9 year old femalePresenting with ADD, atypical Asperbergers, & Depression10 sessions (2 x weekly) trained 2<br />Before<br />After<br />
  43. 43. Case Study One<br />
  44. 44. Case Study OneClients Mother’s Comments<br />In 8 sessions I have noticed an extreme increase in her joy. Her attention span has also increased. This is our first experience with NIT, and we have been pleased. We didn’t really notice a noticeable difference in Hannah until after the 5th session. But the difference was a big one—her anger transformed into happiness. She also made a new friend and has kept this new friend, without her losing interest. Her ability to sit still has increased. It has been very helpful for Hannah’s ADHD. We would definitely recommend this service to others. <br />3 weeks after sessions ended<br />Hannah has been on no medication for her ADHD, besides the TravaCor Jr. supplements, and doing very well in school. It&apos;s hard to remember the last time she was this happy. Her concentration and comprehension has improved immensely.<br />
  45. 45. Case Study Two57 year old female presenting with depression & anxiety (trained 10 sessions 3 X weekly)<br />Before<br />After<br />
  46. 46. Case Study Two<br />
  47. 47. Case Study Two<br />I thought you may like to know some of my observations re the NIT. Firstly I would like to thank you very much for your gentle kind support of me from the beginning. As you know I arrived rather anxious and burnt out from years of teaching in SA. You made me feel so special and relaxed. Once I realised that you were not judging me because of my `sieve brain` I began to enjoy our time together. <br />About half way through the 10 sessions, I felt a new sense of relaxation and rejuvenation. I know I have benefitted from these sessions and would love to keep them up. But it is not to be as I will return to SA but with a new, revived brain. Thanks again for everything. <br />
  48. 48. Case Study Three4 year old boy presenting with axonal motor neuropathy, bilateral hip dysplasia, and bilateral cub feet <br />My son Wyatt, age 4, has had a good experience. He was diagnosed with axonal motor neuropathy affecting the legs, which made his legs get really tired pretty quickly. He also as born with bilateral hip dysplasia and bilateral cub feet and has spent nearly his entire life in either casts or braces. Wyatt also has a syrinx in his spine. After about 4 sessions of NIT Wyatt started walking up stairs right, left, right, left, whereas before he would walk up stairs left, left, left, unless I asked him to use his right. The biggest difference has been in his stamina. His level of fatigue has decreased tremendously. His coordination, balance, gait, and stamina have all improved tremendously after 8 sessions. Also, Wyatt has recently been practicing standing on his hands, which he is able to balance on for a couple of seconds. He had never attempted this before. He just seems to have more control over his body, and he knows it.<br />
  49. 49. Case Study Four51 year old male presenting with depression & poor memory <br />Before<br />After<br />
  50. 50. Case Study Four<br />
  51. 51. Remember<br />The function of your brain determines your level of consciousness and your experience of the world. <br />YOU are not your brain, not a product of its collective function nor its learned and habitually expressed patterns of behavior—these will change over time.<br />YOU are the uniting principle behind all these things.<br />You should be running your brain, not the other way round!<br />