Cancer of the Large Intestine
The large bowel has 5 sections
• Swallowed food, passes down the (oesophagus)
into your stomach.
• Digestion begins in the stomach
• Small intestine where digestion continues and
the body absorbs nutrients from the food.
• The digested food then moves into the large
The large Intestine
• The large bowel absorbs water as the digested
• Waste matter and toxins left behind forms
• The back passage (rectum) stores the stool
until you are ready to pass it out of the body
as a bowel motion.
• The following symptoms may indicate colon cancer:
• Abdominal pain and tenderness in the lower abdomen
• Blood in the stool
• Diarrhoea, constipation, or other change in bowel habits
• Narrow stools
• Weight loss with no known reason
Analysis of Faeces
• The faeces can be analysed for various
markers that are indicative of various diseases
• Fecal calprotectin levels indicate an
inflammatory process such as
• Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and
Medical research suggests
that low-fat and high-fibre
diets may reduce your risk
of colon cancer.
Changing your diet and
lifestyle is important.
Causes of Bowel Cancer
• Smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol are
other risk factors for colorectal cancer.
• Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
• Have a family history of colon cancer
• Have a personal history of breast cancer
Red Meat and Colon Cancer
Different types of cancer can affect the colon:
Colon cancer refers to colon carcinoma only.
• Bowel cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the UK.
• Around 40,700 people were diagnosed with bowel cancer
in 2010 in the UK, that’s around than110 people every day
• In 2010, around 22,800 men were diagnosed with bowel
• Third most common cancer in the UK men after prostate
• Common cancer in men after prostate and lung
• Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in women
after lung cancer and breast cancer, with around 17,900
new cases diagnosed in the UK in 2010.
• More than 8 in 10 bowel cancer cases occur in people aged
60 and over.
• Bowel cancer incidence rates have remained relatively
stable for over a decade.
• Blood tests to detect tumour markers, including
carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA 19-9,
may help your physician follow you during and
• Complete blood count (CBC) to check for
• Liver function tests
Stages of Cancer
• Very early cancer on the innermost layer of the
• Cancer is in the inner layers of the colon
• Cancer has spread through the muscle wall of the
• Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes
• Cancer has spread to other organs outside the colon
• Treatment depends on many things, including
stage of the cancer.
• Surgery to remove cancer (A colectomy)
• Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
• Radiation therapy to destroy cancerous tissue
• Colon cancer may be treated by removing the
• This is done using colonoscopy.
• For stages I, II, and III cancer, more extensive
surgery is needed to remove the part of the
colon that is cancerous. This surgery is called
• Almost all patients with stage III colon cancer
will receive chemotherapy after surgery
• The drug 5-fluorouracil can increase the
chance of a cure in certain patients.
• 5-fluorouracil are the three most
commonly used drugs.
The risk can
your risk of
Treats many types
of cancer including,
breast cancer, head
and neck cancers,
colon cancer and
some skin cancers.
• The death rate for colon cancer
has dropped in the last 15 years.
• This may be due to increased
awareness and screening by