Cancer of the large intestine [autosaved]
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  • 1. Cancer of the Large Intestine http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DABeD_X-jm4
  • 2. The large bowel has 5 sections Transverse colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon Rectum Ascending colon
  • 3. Digestion • Swallowed food, passes down the (oesophagus) into your stomach. • Digestion begins in the stomach • Small intestine where digestion continues and the body absorbs nutrients from the food. • The digested food then moves into the large bowel.
  • 4. The large Intestine • The large bowel absorbs water as the digested food passes • Waste matter and toxins left behind forms into stools. • The back passage (rectum) stores the stool until you are ready to pass it out of the body as a bowel motion.
  • 5. Bristol Stool Chart
  • 6. Symptoms • The following symptoms may indicate colon cancer: • Abdominal pain and tenderness in the lower abdomen • Blood in the stool • Diarrhoea, constipation, or other change in bowel habits • Narrow stools • Weight loss with no known reason
  • 7. Analysis of Faeces • The faeces can be analysed for various markers that are indicative of various diseases and conditions. • Fecal calprotectin levels indicate an inflammatory process such as • Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and neoplasms cancer
  • 8. Preventative Medical research suggests that low-fat and high-fibre diets may reduce your risk of colon cancer. Changing your diet and lifestyle is important. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=twgBajFhHsI
  • 9. Causes of Bowel Cancer • Smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol are other risk factors for colorectal cancer. • Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis • Have a family history of colon cancer • Have a personal history of breast cancer
  • 10. Red Meat and Colon Cancer • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=twgBajFhHsI Different types of cancer can affect the colon: Lymphoma, Carcinoid tumours, Melanoma, Sarcomas. Colon cancer refers to colon carcinoma only.
  • 11. Statistics • Bowel cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the UK. • Around 40,700 people were diagnosed with bowel cancer in 2010 in the UK, that’s around than110 people every day • In 2010, around 22,800 men were diagnosed with bowel cancer • Third most common cancer in the UK men after prostate and lung
  • 12. STATISTICS • Common cancer in men after prostate and lung cancer. • Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in women after lung cancer and breast cancer, with around 17,900 new cases diagnosed in the UK in 2010. • More than 8 in 10 bowel cancer cases occur in people aged 60 and over. • Bowel cancer incidence rates have remained relatively stable for over a decade.
  • 13. Blood Tests • Blood tests to detect tumour markers, including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA 19-9, may help your physician follow you during and after treatment. • Complete blood count (CBC) to check for anaemia • Liver function tests
  • 14. Stages of Cancer • Very early cancer on the innermost layer of the intestine • Cancer is in the inner layers of the colon • Cancer has spread through the muscle wall of the colon • Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes • Cancer has spread to other organs outside the colon
  • 15. Treatment • Treatment depends on many things, including stage of the cancer. • Surgery to remove cancer (A colectomy) • Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells • Radiation therapy to destroy cancerous tissue
  • 16. Surgery to remove cancer A colectomy
  • 17. Colonoscopy • Colon cancer may be treated by removing the cancer cells. • This is done using colonoscopy. • For stages I, II, and III cancer, more extensive surgery is needed to remove the part of the colon that is cancerous. This surgery is called colon resection.
  • 18. Adjuvant Chemotherapy • Almost all patients with stage III colon cancer will receive chemotherapy after surgery • The drug 5-fluorouracil can increase the chance of a cure in certain patients.
  • 19. Drugs • 5-fluorouracil are the three most commonly used drugs. • Irinotecan, • Oxaliplatin, • Capecitabine,
  • 20. Research Research has reported that NSAIDs Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Celecoxib May help reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. The risk can increase your risk of bleeding and heart problems.
  • 21. Fluorouracil Treats many types of cancer including, breast cancer, head and neck cancers, anal cancer, stomach cancer, colon cancer and some skin cancers.
  • 22. Side Effects Tiredness and breathlessness Feeling or being sick Mouth sores and ulcers DiarrhoeaNosebleeds Heart problems Harder to fight infections
  • 23. Awareness • The death rate for colon cancer has dropped in the last 15 years. • This may be due to increased awareness and screening by colonoscopy. http://video.about.com/coloncancer/A-Colonoscopy--What-to-Expect.htm