Cancer of the large intestine [autosaved]


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Cancer of the large intestine [autosaved]

  1. 1. Cancer of the Large Intestine
  2. 2. The large bowel has 5 sections Transverse colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon Rectum Ascending colon
  3. 3. Digestion • Swallowed food, passes down the (oesophagus) into your stomach. • Digestion begins in the stomach • Small intestine where digestion continues and the body absorbs nutrients from the food. • The digested food then moves into the large bowel.
  4. 4. The large Intestine • The large bowel absorbs water as the digested food passes • Waste matter and toxins left behind forms into stools. • The back passage (rectum) stores the stool until you are ready to pass it out of the body as a bowel motion.
  5. 5. Bristol Stool Chart
  6. 6. Symptoms • The following symptoms may indicate colon cancer: • Abdominal pain and tenderness in the lower abdomen • Blood in the stool • Diarrhoea, constipation, or other change in bowel habits • Narrow stools • Weight loss with no known reason
  7. 7. Analysis of Faeces • The faeces can be analysed for various markers that are indicative of various diseases and conditions. • Fecal calprotectin levels indicate an inflammatory process such as • Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and neoplasms cancer
  8. 8. Preventative Medical research suggests that low-fat and high-fibre diets may reduce your risk of colon cancer. Changing your diet and lifestyle is important.
  9. 9. Causes of Bowel Cancer • Smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol are other risk factors for colorectal cancer. • Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis • Have a family history of colon cancer • Have a personal history of breast cancer
  10. 10. Red Meat and Colon Cancer • Different types of cancer can affect the colon: Lymphoma, Carcinoid tumours, Melanoma, Sarcomas. Colon cancer refers to colon carcinoma only.
  11. 11. Statistics • Bowel cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the UK. • Around 40,700 people were diagnosed with bowel cancer in 2010 in the UK, that’s around than110 people every day • In 2010, around 22,800 men were diagnosed with bowel cancer • Third most common cancer in the UK men after prostate and lung
  12. 12. STATISTICS • Common cancer in men after prostate and lung cancer. • Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer in women after lung cancer and breast cancer, with around 17,900 new cases diagnosed in the UK in 2010. • More than 8 in 10 bowel cancer cases occur in people aged 60 and over. • Bowel cancer incidence rates have remained relatively stable for over a decade.
  13. 13. Blood Tests • Blood tests to detect tumour markers, including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA 19-9, may help your physician follow you during and after treatment. • Complete blood count (CBC) to check for anaemia • Liver function tests
  14. 14. Stages of Cancer • Very early cancer on the innermost layer of the intestine • Cancer is in the inner layers of the colon • Cancer has spread through the muscle wall of the colon • Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes • Cancer has spread to other organs outside the colon
  15. 15. Treatment • Treatment depends on many things, including stage of the cancer. • Surgery to remove cancer (A colectomy) • Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells • Radiation therapy to destroy cancerous tissue
  16. 16. Surgery to remove cancer A colectomy
  17. 17. Colonoscopy • Colon cancer may be treated by removing the cancer cells. • This is done using colonoscopy. • For stages I, II, and III cancer, more extensive surgery is needed to remove the part of the colon that is cancerous. This surgery is called colon resection.
  18. 18. Adjuvant Chemotherapy • Almost all patients with stage III colon cancer will receive chemotherapy after surgery • The drug 5-fluorouracil can increase the chance of a cure in certain patients.
  19. 19. Drugs • 5-fluorouracil are the three most commonly used drugs. • Irinotecan, • Oxaliplatin, • Capecitabine,
  20. 20. Research Research has reported that NSAIDs Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Celecoxib May help reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. The risk can increase your risk of bleeding and heart problems.
  21. 21. Fluorouracil Treats many types of cancer including, breast cancer, head and neck cancers, anal cancer, stomach cancer, colon cancer and some skin cancers.
  22. 22. Side Effects Tiredness and breathlessness Feeling or being sick Mouth sores and ulcers DiarrhoeaNosebleeds Heart problems Harder to fight infections
  23. 23. Awareness • The death rate for colon cancer has dropped in the last 15 years. • This may be due to increased awareness and screening by colonoscopy.