• Understand how Singapore manages
conflict and ensure national security
• Countries manage international relations
through deterrence & diplomacy (D&D)
• Singapore’s deterrence policy: prepared
for any form of threats
• Singapore’s diplomatic policy:
developing relationships with as many
countries as possible.
• Refers to measures taken by countries
to prevent and protect themselves
Maintaining military installations
Carrying out military exercises
Sharing information among countries
Installing CCTV cameras at train stations
Military cooperation with
A citizen armed force
• National Service (NS) was introduced in
1967 for all able-bodied male citizens
• Continue to serve as Operationally Ready
Nsmen for another 10 years
• Undergo refresher courses
• Maintain competence in handling new
weapons and equipment
• Recent advances in infocommunication technologies
• SAF needs to maximise defense
• Soldiers can fight decisively in war &
respond flexibly in peacetime.
Singapore’s defence industry
• SAF needs to be self-reliant in defence
• DSTA provides cost-effective and modern
technology to SAF and MINDEF
• Buys and upgrades weapons
• Conducts defence-related research &
• Singaporeans believe that Singapore is
worth defending and are involved in all
• Potential aggressors will think twice about
• 5 aspects: Civil, Economic, Social,
• Commemorated to remind Singaporeans
not to take our security for granted.
coordination on security
• Various government agencies work
closely together to strengthen and
enhance national security.
• Meet regularly to plan national security
strategies and policies
• Work together with commercial and
private parties to combat any form of
major terror threats
• Friendly ties with the armed forces of
• Agreements for Singapore troops to train
in countries such as France, Australia and
• Regular military training activities
• FPDA established for nations to
cooperate and consult one another on
measures to be taken
• Each group will take charge of each
measure on deterrence.
• Discuss with group members on how the
measure helps to prevent & protect
Singapore from threats.
• Write your responses on the butcher
• Class discussion
• 10 minutes for group work!
• Explain how each
measure will ensure
stability and peace in
Importance of Deterrence
• Self-reliance after being “abandoned”
during Japanese Occupation and
• Economy affected when defence is
• People do not feel secure and foreign
companies are not willing to invest in
Military cooperation with
• The way in which countries manage or
conduct relations with one another.
• Promote common interests and to resolve
conflicting interests in a peaceful manner.
• Relationship between 2 countries
o E.g. Singapore & Japan, Singapore & USA,
Singapore & Malaysia
• Singapore has been expanding bilateral
relationships with many countries since its
• Offering help in times of need:
humanitarian aid to Aceh when the
earthquake hit in 2004. Singapore sent
medicine, first aid, food parcels, water,
etc. for homeless victims.
• An association of countries in a region
• Better position when dealing with other
countries or associations. E.g. ASEAN, EU,
• ASEAN initiatives
o ASEAN Free Trade Area, ASEAN Regional Forum,
Education and professional exchange,
economic cooperation & assistance,
Education & Professional
• Singapore has provided training to 1700
officials from Laos since 1993.
• Training on IT skills, learning English and
handling trade promotions.
• Scholarships offered to students of ASEAN
countries so when they return to their
home country they can contribute to their
• Involve ties among many countries or
groupings throughout the world.
• United Nations (UN) helped Singapore by
sending experts to advise and help in the
economic and social development of the
• Singapore received help in industrial
planning and development in the 1970s
Importance of diplomacy
• Diplomacy provides an opportunity for
countries to pursue mutual interests.
• It also enables them to cooperate with
one another to solve common problems.
• It also helps countries resolve conflicts,
differences and disagreements
• Diplomacy also allows countries to help
one another in times of need.