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East High Chem Activity 8

East High Chem Activity 8







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    East High Chem Activity 8 East High Chem Activity 8 Presentation Transcript

    • Activity 8 Summary
    • GOOD NEWS!
      • This presentation will be available online at www.slideshare.net
      • Search for annachem activity 8
      • This website is similar to you tube so I think you will be good at it.
    • Investigate 1 + 2
      • The elements Li, Na, K all have the lowest 1 st ionization energy
      • That means it’s REALLY easy for them to lose one electron (they are the lowest points on your graph).
      • After they have lost that 1 electron, then they have a COMPLETE OCTET. I,e they have a Noble Gas Configuration. They are ‘happy’
    • Investigate 1 + 2
      • It is really hard for Li, Na, K to lose a second electron. Not only do they have to break apart the OCTET, but they have a +1 charge, so the electrons are pulled even tighter by the nucleus. Losing a second electron is the highest point on the second graph.
    • Investigate
      • Be, Mg, Ca all have 2 valance electrons
      • They will need to lose 2 electrons to get the complete OCTET.
      • The first electron comes away pretty easily, and the second really easily so that it has a NOBLE GAS CONFIGURATION.
      • Note – the ionization energy DECREASES as you move down a group because adding another ‘layer’ means the electrons are further from the nucleus – so easier to remove.
    • So – what’s the point?
      • Atoms are stable when they have the electron configuration of a NOBLE gas. They will gain or lose their VALANCE electrons in order to do this. In general, this means a stable atom has 8 valance electrons, or an OCTET.
    • Now we can predict formulas!
      • Zinc wants to lose 2 electrons
      • Each Chlorine wants to gain 1 electron.
      • So in order for all the atoms to be ‘happy’ you need 1 Zinc for every 2 Chlorines.
      • The formula is
        • ZnCl 2
    • Writing formulas
      • Al wants to lose 3
      • F wants to gain 1
      • What is the formula for Aluminum Fluoride?
      • AlF 3
    • What about…..
      • Sodium Oxide
        • Na 2 O
      • Lithium Chloride
        • LiCl
      • Potassium Nitride
        • K 3 N
      • Calcium Sulfide
        • CaS
    • Chem. Talk
      • The OCTET RULE states that atoms gain or lose electrons to get a complete OCTET.
    • Naming Binary Compounds
      • 1. Always name the Cat-ion (+) first.
      • 2. The Anion is second, and the ending changes to -ide
      • Ex: Copper Chlor ide
        • Sodium Ox ide
        • Potassium Nitr ide
    • Ionic Bonds
      • Electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The first atom becomes (+) the second becomes (-)
      • The compound holds together because (+) and (-) charges attract each other.
    • Covalent bonds
      • Electrons are shared between 2 atoms. There are no ions.
      • The molecule holds together because the electrons ‘tie’ them together by forming molecular orbitals , not atomic orbitals.
    • Electron Dot Structures
      • We can figure out how atoms will form covalent bond by drawing its Electron Dot structure. This is a drawing of how the electrons from each atom interact with each other.
    • Steps to drawing Lewis Dot structures
      • 1. Draw out all the atoms with the valance electrons shown as dots
    • Step 2
      • Decide how they will share to form bonds so that ALL the atoms have a complete octet (note - Hydrogen will be stable with only 2 electrons, since it is the 1s level)
    • Step 3
      • Re-write the structure with the bonding electrons represented as lines.
      • This is REALLY easy - it just takes practice - I promise!