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Kurdish presentationfinal

  1. 1. Kurds 1
  2. 2. • Kurdish people can claim one of the longest ethnic histories in the Middle East and their culture remained distinctly different from all the others found around it. • This early separatism would lay the groundwork for problems in outside parties ruling the area. History of the Kurds 2
  3. 3. Under the Ottoman Empire • Starting in 1843, the Kurdish area of the middle east fell under the Ottoman rule but there was a massive Kurdish uprising in 1847 that lead to sudden suppression by Ottoman forces that would continue until the Empire fell. • The oppression suffered under this system led to the first attempt in organizing a national Kurdish movement as early as 1908. 3
  4. 4. • Between 1920 and 1923, there was an uneasy peace in the former Ottoman Empire. Territories were being created, lines redrawn, and nationalities divided by the Allied powers, with little regard to anything but their own interests. • The Treaty of Sevres which was drawn up in August of 1920, provided for the division of Turkey. It was between allied powers and smaller ethnic groups that desired an independent homeland. • The traditional Kurdish homeland was too valuable for conflicting parties to give up. Britain wanted to retain control of Northern Iraq for the oil rich Mosul area. Turkey's new leader, Mustafa Kemal also refused to give up any lands in the south to Kurds • Soon after, Turkey passed laws prohibiting the teaching or speaking of the Kurdish language in public places. 4
  5. 5. After World War II • The Iranian portion of Kurdistan was under Soviet occupation, and the Soviets allowed Qazi Mohammed, a respected religious and political leader, to create and lead the Mahabad Republic of Kurdistan. • During this time Mohammed also founded the Kurdish Democratic Party. • Lasting less than a year, the Mahabad Republic was never granted full independence or autonomy. • Soviets withdrew their forces from the area in 1947 and the Iranian central government, backed by the US and Great Britain, destroyed the Kurdish republic and executed the leaders. 5
  6. 6. The Problem of Iraq • During the 1950's and 60's Iraq waged massive campaigns to rid Iraqi territory of Kurds. The war went on and off for nearly twenty years, with widespread massacre on the Kurdish people. 6 Consequences of Racism: Extermination
  7. 7. The Iranian Revolution • When the Shah's authority started to crumble in 1978, Iranian Kurds moved to take control of their own affairs. • The Kurds lent their assistance to Ayotollah Khomeini's rise to power, and he promised them constitutional amendments protecting their freedoms. Predictably, Khomeini's government did not live up to its promises and fighting again started in the Kurdish countryside. • The Kurds could not defend themselves against the superior technology of the Iranian government, guerrilla tactics and terrorism grew to be their most powerful weapon. • Internal disunion • Split between five countries, each group of Kurds in the middle east had different ambitions dependent on where they lived. Each had a different government to deal with and a different set of circumstances. • Since the early 1970's, Kurdish political parties have been fighting each other as well as outside governments, weakening their political voice in 7
  8. 8. The Gulf War • Iraqi military violently put down a northern Kurdish uprising. • The United States encouraged peace accords between Kurdish parties in Iraq, largely to weaken Saddam's authority and to get a foothold in the area, but did nothing to help the Kurdish dilemma in Iran or Turkey. • More than one million Kurds fled Iraq, and about 600,000 remained in refugee camps in the northern no fly zone created by Operation Provide Comfort. • However clashes between rival Kurdish parties made the government ineffective. Seeing Kurdish elections in Iraq caused panic over Kurdish elections in Turkey, afterward the Turkish government to banned The People's Labor Party from parliament. 8
  9. 9. Kurdish Culture: Overview • The Kurdish population is made up of about 25-30 million people, spread across Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Armenia, and Iran. • The Kurdish language is made from a blend of Persian, Turkish, and Arabic. • Agriculture is a main industry in Kurdish populated areas. 9
  10. 10. Kurdish Culture: Clothing • Women dress modestly, covering themselves at least to elbows and knees. • In certain countries, it is required for women to wear a head covering. In others, it is strictly forbidden. 10
  11. 11. Men’s Clothing 11 • Coats • vests • baggy pants
  12. 12. Kurdish Culture: Family Life • Kurdish families are patriarchal. In Kurdish areas, jobs do not exist for women outside of the home. • Marriages are decided upon by male family members. In rural areas, the groom’s family pays a “bride price” for the bride’s hand in marriage. In urban areas, payment is only required if a man chooses to divorce his wife. • Large families are common, as birth control is considered immoral. 12
  13. 13. Adjusting to America 13
  14. 14. • The majority of Kurds, around 75%, identify as Sunni Muslims. • Kurds value hospitality, and are known to put plans on hold at the arrival of visitors, even when unexpected. Kurdish Values 14
  15. 15. • Tennessee has the largest Kurdish population in the country. It is also the only place in the country where you can find the Kurdish Pride gang. Kurds in America 15
  16. 16. Dancing • Most villages have different dances 16
  17. 17. • 21st March: Nawroz, Kurdish New Year celebrated on the spring equinox • Big deal • special foods • fireworks • dancing • singing • poetry recitations • 5th March 1991: Uprising against Saddam Hussein’s regime • 14th March 1903: Birthday of Mustafa Barzani • 16th March 1988: Halabja Day • 14th April: Commemoration of Anfal genocide campaign against Important Dates 17
  18. 18. Bloody Friday • March 16, 1988 • 5000 Kurds killed in chemical weapons attack 18
  19. 19. Holidays • 1st January: New Year’s Day • 6th January: Army Day • 24th January: Mouloud: Prophet Mohammad’s Birthday • 5th March : Uprising Day • 11th March: Liberation of Erbil City • 14th March: Mustafa Barzani’s Birthday • 21st - 23rd March: Nawroz Kurdish New Year (Spring equinox) • 9th April: Baghdad Liberation Day (fall of Saddam Hussein’s regime) • 14th July: Republic Day • 7th – 9th August: Eid-al-Fitr Feast • 14th - 17th October: Eid al-Qurban Feast • 4th November: Muharram known as the Islamic New Year • 13th November: Ashura • 25th December: Christmas Day 19
  20. 20. Lifestyle • Most live countryside in small farming villages. – Agriculture • Wheat • Barley • Rye • Oat 20
  21. 21. Main Foods • Fresh herbs • Vegetables • Lamb • Chicken • Rice • Flat Bread 21
  22. 22. Primary Systems and How They Function Kurdish Political Organization • Kurdish Worker’s Party (KKP) • Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) • Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) • Komeleh 22
  23. 23. Political Systems • Kurdish people have many political systems • Systems are used to advocate for: – Language rights – Freedom from social chauvinism – Freedom from violence – Kurdish independence – Socialism 23
  24. 24. Kurdish Worker’s Party • Main Kurdish resistance group in Turkey • Sees the political feuds in Turkey as a result of oppression and exploitation • One of 19 political Kurdish political parties in Turkey • Has been declared illegal by the central government of Turkey 24
  25. 25. Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP)• Two Kurdish political parties in Iraq • Works with U.S. Occupation • Rules Iraqi Kurdistan • Fight of economic independence • Also advocate for basic needs of proper water and electricity resources 25
  26. 26. Komeleh • One of five Kurdish political parties in Iran • Strong advocate of Women’s Rights • 1st Kurdish organization to integrate women into their armed forces • Involved in the uprisings against the central government of Iran 26
  27. 27. Kurdish Population 27
  28. 28. Kurdistan • “Land of the Kurds” – Turkey • 18% – Iraq • 17% – Iran • 7% – Syria • 9% 28
  29. 29. Europe • Germany • France • Sweden • U.K. • Netherlands United States • California • San Diego • Nashville 29
  30. 30. Immigration to Nashville • 4 Waves 1) 1976 – Iraq 2) 1977-79 – Iran 3) 1991-92 – Iraq 4) 1996-97 – Iraqi “Guam Kurds” 30 Refugees
  31. 31. “Little Kurdistan” • 58,000 estimated in U.S. • 8,000-11,000 in Nashville 31 Blended Identity
  32. 32. Challenges for Kurdish Immigrants • Language • Stress on Children • Problems with Authority • PTSD, Health Problems • Generational Difficulties • Maintaining Culture 32
  33. 33. In Nashville: • Kurdish Cultural Institute • Kurdish Human Rights Watch • Nashville Kurdish Forum • Kurdish American Youth Organization • Tennessee Kurdish Community Council 33 • Azadi International Marke • House of Kabob Pluralism
  34. 34. Video Segments 34 NPT: Next Door Neighbors - Little Kurdistan. (2013, October 4). Retrieved from YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rWS 0TqtpVSc
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. Additional Photo Credits 36 Chemical Ali executed for his crimes. (2010, January 25). Retrieved October 7, 2013, from Ararat News & Publishing: www.araratnews.net/nuce.php?aid=409 Documenting the Kurdish Genocide. (2009, January 24). Retrieved October 7, 2013, from Gilgamish: www.gilgamish.org/ viewarticle.php?id=English_Articles-20090124-15738 Halabjah. (n.d.). Retrieved October 7, 2013, from Kurdistan Democratic Party: http://www.kdp.se/old/chemical.html Iraqi Kurdistan. (2013, April 15). Retrieved October 7, 2013, from Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization: http:// www.unpo.org/article/15730 Kurdish farmer in Iraq, 2007. (n.d.). Retrieved October 7, 2013, from Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:Kurdish_farmer_in_iraq,_2007.jpg Kurdish Female Fighters. (2013, February). Retrieved October 7, 2013, from Roj Women: http://rojwomen.files.wordpress.com/ 2012/02/kurdish-female-fighters.jpg Kurdish Population. (2013, October 4). Retrieved from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurdish_population News/Europe. (2013, October 4). Retrieved from Voice of America: http://www.voanews.com/content/erdogan-kurdish-slaying- stem-from-internal-dispute/1581848.html NPT: Next Door Neighbors - Little Kurdistan. (2013, October 4). Retrieved from YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=rWS0TqtpVSc The Kurdish Immigrant Experience and a Growing American Community. (2013, October 4). Retrieved from The Kurdish Herald: http://www.kurdishherald.com/issue/v002/001/article04.php Turkey in 2030. (2013, October 4). Retrieved from Dimi's Lab on Global Politics: http://rapidis.blogactiv.eu/2012/12/12/turkey- in-2030/ Understanding the Turkey-Kurd Conflict. (1999, March 2). Retrieved October 7, 2013, from Infoplease: http://infoplease.com/spot/ kurds1.html