“IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MOST   MERCIFUL AND BENEFICENT”
COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE ANDASSEMBLY LANGUAGE
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION
ARCHITECTURE & ORGANIZATION  • Two jargons that are often confusing  • Computer organization: refers to the    operational...
1. 1. INTRODUCTION - CONTINUED• Architecture concerns more about the basic instruction  design, that may lead to better pe...
STRUCTURE & FUNCTION• Structure is the way in which component  relate to each other• Function is the operation of individu...
1. 2. INTRODUCTION - STRUCTURE ANDFUNCTION• Computer system may be seen from different angles. One  may see it from the st...
1. 2. INTRODUCTION - STRUCTURE ANDFUNCTION• Function of a computer :   Data processing   Data storage   Data Movement   Co...
FUNCTIONAL VIEW
1.2. INTRODUCTION - STRUCTURE OFCOMPUTER• Four main structure are :  Central Processing Unit (CPU)  Main Memory : Stores d...
1.3. INTRODUCTION - OUTLINE OF THE BOOK•   Computer Evolution and Performance•   Computer Interconnection Structures•   Ca...
Computer Evolution and    Performance
BRIEF HISTORY• From ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)  John Mauchly and John P Eckert, University of Pe...
ENIAC
ENIAC
2. 1.EVOLUTION AND PERFORMANCE -HISTORY• 1946 Von Neuman and his gang proposed IAS (Institute for  Advanced Studies)• The ...
STRUCTURE OFIAS
IAS
2. 1. EVOLUTION AND PERFORMANCE -HISTORYIAS components are :• MBR (memory buffer register), MAR (memory address  register)...
HISTORY OF COMMERCIAL               COMPUTERS• First Generation : 1950 Mauchly & Eckert developed UNIVAC I,  used by Censu...
HISTORY OF COMMERCIAL                    COMPUTERS                      Approx                                          Sp...
EVOLUTION - SYSTEM 360 FAMILY                                         Model          Model        Model       Model       ...
EVOLUTION - LATER GENERATIONS• Semiconductor memories : 1K,4K,16K,64K,256K,1M,4M,16  Mbits on a single chip• Microprocesso...
EVOLUTION OF MICROPROCESSORS------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Feat...
8086 (1978)• 20-bit address bus : 1M byte(1024Kbytes) memory• instruction : over 20,000 variation   • 4004 : 45, 8085 : 24...
8088•   8086(1978) : 16-bit data bus     • requirement of two separate 8-bit memory banks to       supply its 16-bit data ...
80186/80188•   High-Integration CPUs     • schematic diagram for IBM’s original PC         • 8088 microprocessor         •...
80286 (1982)• some instruction executed : 250ns(4.0MIPS) at 8MHz• 24-bit address bus : 16M byte memory• added 16 new instr...
80386• flexible 32-bit Microprocessor(1986) : data bus, registers• very large address space : 32-bit address bus(4G byte p...
80486• Intel released 80486 in 1989• maintaining compatibility : standard(8086,286,386)   • polished & refined 386 : twice...
80486• 486SX :   • for low-end applications that do not require a coprocessor or     internal cache   • clock speed limite...
PENTIUM• increasing the complexity of the IC: to scale the chip down   • if every line could be shrunk in half, same circu...
PENTIUM PRO• codenamed P6 : 1995   • basic clock frequency : 150, 166MHz• two chips in one : two separate silicon die   • ...
PENTIUMⅡAND PENTIUMⅡXEON       MICROPROCESSOR• PentiumⅡmicroprocessor released in 1997• PentiumⅡ module : small circuit bo...
PENTIUMⅡAND PENTIUMⅡXEON       MICROPROCESSOR• new version of PentiumⅡcalled Xeon : mid-1998   • for high-end workstation ...
PENTIUM Ⅲ MICROPROCESSOR• 1. used faster core than PentiumⅡ   • is still P6 or Pentium pro processor• 2. Two version :   •...
PENTIUM 4 MICROPROCESSOR• release in late 2000 : used Intel P6 architecture• main difference :• 1. clock speed : 1.3, 1.4,...
THE FUTURE OF MICROPROCESSORS• no one can really make accurate prediction :   • success of Intel family should continue fo...
Histry n intro
Histry n intro
Histry n intro
Histry n intro
Histry n intro
Histry n intro
Histry n intro
Histry n intro
Histry n intro
Histry n intro
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Histry n intro

  1. 1. “IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MOST MERCIFUL AND BENEFICENT”
  2. 2. COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE ANDASSEMBLY LANGUAGE
  3. 3. CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. ARCHITECTURE & ORGANIZATION • Two jargons that are often confusing • Computer organization: refers to the operational units and their interconnections that realize the architectural specifications (!) • Control signals, Interface, Memory technology. • Computer Architecture refers to those attributes of a system visible to a programmer, or put another way, those attributes that have a direct impact on the logical execution of a program (!) • Instruction set, no. of bits used for data representation, I/O mechanisms
  5. 5. 1. 1. INTRODUCTION - CONTINUED• Architecture concerns more about the basic instruction design, that may lead to better performance of the system• Organization, is the implementation of computer system, in terms of its interconnection of functional units : CPU, memory, bus and I/O devices.• Example : IBM/S-370 family architecture. There are plenty of IBM products having the same architecture (S-370) but different organization, depending on its price/performance measures. Cost and performance differs the organizations• So, organization of a computer is the implementation of its architecture, but tailored to fit the intended price and performance measures.
  6. 6. STRUCTURE & FUNCTION• Structure is the way in which component relate to each other• Function is the operation of individual components as part of the structure
  7. 7. 1. 2. INTRODUCTION - STRUCTURE ANDFUNCTION• Computer system may be seen from different angles. One may see it from the structures, or the others may look it from its functions.• From the structure point of view, we may see a system as an interrelated components, while from its function we may learn the operational details of each components.• It is up to us to see, we may start from the bottom up (learn the operational details of each component) and then we study how are they interrelated; or the other way around or top down approach.• The book we are using, use the top-down approach.
  8. 8. 1. 2. INTRODUCTION - STRUCTURE ANDFUNCTION• Function of a computer : Data processing Data storage Data Movement Control• Primary Function is data processing• Second most important function is data storage• Another important function is “control”• And sometimes it can function to move data (transfer)
  9. 9. FUNCTIONAL VIEW
  10. 10. 1.2. INTRODUCTION - STRUCTURE OFCOMPUTER• Four main structure are : Central Processing Unit (CPU) Main Memory : Stores data temporarily I/O (Input Output) : Moves Data between computer and external environment System Interconnection : Provides communication among CPU, Memory and I/O• CPU consists of : Control Unit, ALU (x,:,+,-), Registers (internal Storage), CPU bus/interconnections
  11. 11. 1.3. INTRODUCTION - OUTLINE OF THE BOOK• Computer Evolution and Performance• Computer Interconnection Structures• Cache Memory• Internal Memory• External Memory• Input/Output• Instruction Sets• CPU structure & Functions• Pipelined, RISC• Superscalar, Parallel Processor• etc.
  12. 12. Computer Evolution and Performance
  13. 13. BRIEF HISTORY• From ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) John Mauchly and John P Eckert, University of Pennsylvania (1943 - 1946)• For war purposes• Weighted 30 tons, consumes 140 kwatts of electric power, 15.000 square feet of space, only 5000 addition per second• Not a digital computer, it was a decimal computer (analog)• John von Neuman proposed : EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Computer) - first stored program computer -1945
  14. 14. ENIAC
  15. 15. ENIAC
  16. 16. 2. 1.EVOLUTION AND PERFORMANCE -HISTORY• 1946 Von Neuman and his gang proposed IAS (Institute for Advanced Studies)• The design included : • main memory • ALU • Control Unit • I/O• First Stored Program, able to perform : +, -, x, :• The “father” of all modern computer/processor
  17. 17. STRUCTURE OFIAS
  18. 18. IAS
  19. 19. 2. 1. EVOLUTION AND PERFORMANCE -HISTORYIAS components are :• MBR (memory buffer register), MAR (memory address register), IR (instruction register), IBR (instruction buffer register), PC (program counter), AC (accumulator and MQ (multiplier quotient), memory (1000 locations)• 20 bit instruction : 8 bit opcode, 12 bit address (addressing one of 1000 memory locations - 0 to 999)• 39 bit data (with sign bit - 1 bit)• Operations : data transfer between registers and ALU, unconditional branch, conditional branch, arithmetic, address modify
  20. 20. HISTORY OF COMMERCIAL COMPUTERS• First Generation : 1950 Mauchly & Eckert developed UNIVAC I, used by Census Beureau• Then appeared UNIVAC II, and later grew to UNIVAC 1100 series (1103, 1104,1105,1106,1108) - vacuum tubes and later transistor• Second Generation : Transistors, IBM 7094 (although there are NCR, RCA and others tried to develop their versions - commercially not successful)• Third Generation : Integrated Circuit (IC) - SSI. IBM S/360 was the successful example• Later generations (possibly fourth and fifth) : LSI and VLSI technology
  21. 21. HISTORY OF COMMERCIAL COMPUTERS Approx SpeedGeneration Time Technology (opr/sec)----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. 1946-57 Vacuum tube 40,0002. 1958-64 Transistor 200,0003. 1965-71 SSI & MSI 1,000,0004. 1972-77 LSI 10,000,0005. 1978-VLSI 100,000,000----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  22. 22. EVOLUTION - SYSTEM 360 FAMILY Model Model Model Model ModelCharacteristic 30 40 50 65 75------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Max memory size (Bytes) 64K 256K 256K 512K 512KMemory data-rate(MB/s) 0.5 0.8 2.0 8.0 16.0Processor cycle time ( s) 1.0 0.625 0.5 0.25 0.2Relative Speed 1 3.5 10 21 50Max Number data channel 3 3 4 6 6Max chan. data-rate(KB/s) 250 400 800 1250 1250---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------• Family architecture menyebabkan adanya istilah : upward dan downward compatible
  23. 23. EVOLUTION - LATER GENERATIONS• Semiconductor memories : 1K,4K,16K,64K,256K,1M,4M,16 Mbits on a single chip• Microprocessors appeared : Intel 4004 (1971), Intel 8008 (72), Intel 8080 (8 bit-74), 8086 (16bit-81), 80386 (32bit-85) onward.• At almost the same time : Motorola, 6800(8bit), 68000 (16bit), 68010(16bit), 68020 (32bit), 68030/40 (32bit)• Then Motorola’s product disappeared commercially• Intel products dominated the market, since the appearance of IBM PC
  24. 24. EVOLUTION OF MICROPROCESSORS------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Feature 8008 8080 8086 80386 80486------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Year introduced 1972 1974 1978 1985 1989# of instructions 66 111 133 154 235Address bus width 8 16 20 32 32Data bus width 8 8 16 32 32# of registers 8 8 16 8 8Memory addressability 16KB 64KB 1 MB 4 GB 4 GBBus Bandwidth (MB/s) - 0.75 5 32 32Reg-Reg add time ( s) - 1.3 0.3 0.125 0.06------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  25. 25. 8086 (1978)• 20-bit address bus : 1M byte(1024Kbytes) memory• instruction : over 20,000 variation • 4004 : 45, 8085 : 246• A separate BIU and EU • Fetch and Execute instruction simultaneously• 16-bit Internal processor registers • with the ability to access the high and low 8 bits separately if desired• hardware multiply and divide built in• support for an external math coprocessor • perform floating-point math operations as much as 100 times faster than the processor alone via software emulation
  26. 26. 8088• 8086(1978) : 16-bit data bus • requirement of two separate 8-bit memory banks to supply its 16-bit data bus • quite expensive memory chip at the time• 8088(1979) : external 8-bit data bus• IBM announced the PC : 1981.8 • 8088, 16K memory(expandable 64K), 4.77MHz(clock speed) • PC standard
  27. 27. 80186/80188• High-Integration CPUs • schematic diagram for IBM’s original PC • 8088 microprocessor • several additional chips are required • 80186 = 8086 + several additional chips • added 9 new instructions • clock generator • programmable timer • programmable interrupt controller • circuitry to select the I/O devices
  28. 28. 80286 (1982)• some instruction executed : 250ns(4.0MIPS) at 8MHz• 24-bit address bus : 16M byte memory• added 16 new instructions• Real Mode: 1st powered on • functions exactly like an 8086 • uses only its 20 least significant address lines(1M)• Protected :• A “Fatal Flaw” ? • once switched to Protected mode, should not be able to switch back to Real mode • 286 chips are operated in Real mode and thus function only as fast 8086s• IBM AT(advanced technology) Computer :1984
  29. 29. 80386• flexible 32-bit Microprocessor(1986) : data bus, registers• very large address space : 32-bit address bus(4G byte physical) • 64 terabyte virtual • 4G maximum segment size• integrated memory management unit • virtual memory support, optional on-chip paging • 4 levels of protection• added 16 new instructions• Real Mode, Protected mode• Virtual 8086 mode : in a protected and paged system• 386SX : 16-bit external data bus, 24-bit address bus• 386EX : 16-bit external data bus, 26-bit address bus • 1995, called embedded PC
  30. 30. 80486• Intel released 80486 in 1989• maintaining compatibility : standard(8086,286,386) • polished & refined 386 : twice as fast as 386• redesigned using RISC concept : • frequently used instruction : a single clock cycle • new 5-stage execution pipeline• highly integrated • 8K memory cache • floating-point processor(equivalent of the external 387)• added 6 new instructions : for used by OS
  31. 31. 80486• 486SX : • for low-end applications that do not require a coprocessor or internal cache • clock speed limited 33MHz• 486DX2 & DX4 : • internal clock rate is twice or 3 times external clock rate • 486DX4 100 : internal 100MHz, external 33MHz• Overdrive Processor: • 486DX2 or DX4 chips with overdrive socket pin-outs • to upgrade low-speed 486DX, SX with 486DX2, DX4
  32. 32. PENTIUM• increasing the complexity of the IC: to scale the chip down • if every line could be shrunk in half, same circuit could be built in one-forth the area• Superscaler : support 2 instruction pipelines(5 stage) • ALU, address generation circuit, data cache interface • actually execute two different instruction simultaneously• Pentium(1993) : originally labeled P5(80586) • 60, 66MHz(110MIPS) • 8K code cache, 8K data cache • coprocessor : redesign(8-stage instruction pipeline ) • external data bus : 64 bit(higher data transfer rates ) • added 6 new instructions : for used by OS
  33. 33. PENTIUM PRO• codenamed P6 : 1995 • basic clock frequency : 150, 166MHz• two chips in one : two separate silicon die • processor(large chip), 256K level two cache• Superscaler processor of degree three(12 stage)• internal cache : • level one(L1) : 8K instruction and data cache • level two(L2) : 256K(or 512K)• 36-bit address bus : 64G byte memory• has been optimized to efficiently execute 32-bit code • bundled with Windows NT : server market
  34. 34. PENTIUMⅡAND PENTIUMⅡXEON MICROPROCESSOR• PentiumⅡmicroprocessor released in 1997• PentiumⅡ module : small circuit board • Pentium pro with MMX : no internal L2 cache • 512K L2 cache(operated at speed of 133MHz)• main reason : • L2 cache found main board of Pentium : 60, 66MHz • not fast enough to justify a new microprocessor • Pentium pro : not well yield• 266~333MHz with 100MHz bus speed : in 1998 • bottleneck : external bus speed 66MHz • use of 8ns SDRAM :
  35. 35. PENTIUMⅡAND PENTIUMⅡXEON MICROPROCESSOR• new version of PentiumⅡcalled Xeon : mid-1998 • for high-end workstation and server applications• main difference from PentiumⅡ : • L1 cache size : 32K bytes • L2 cache size : 512K, 1M, 2M• change in Intel’s strategy : • professional version and home/business version of PentiumⅡ microprocessor
  36. 36. PENTIUM Ⅲ MICROPROCESSOR• 1. used faster core than PentiumⅡ • is still P6 or Pentium pro processor• 2. Two version : • bus speed : 100MHz • 1. slot 1 version mounted on a plastic cartridge • 512K cache : one-half the clock speed • 2. socket 370 version called flip-chip : looks like the older Pentium package → Intel claim cost less • 256K cache : clock speed• 3. clock frequency : 1 GHz
  37. 37. PENTIUM 4 MICROPROCESSOR• release in late 2000 : used Intel P6 architecture• main difference :• 1. clock speed : 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 GHz• 2. support to use RAMBUS memory technology • DDR(double-data-rate) SDRAM : both edge• 3. interconnection : from aluminum to copper • copper : is better conductor → increase clock frequency • bus speed : from current max. of 133MHz to 200MHz or higher
  38. 38. THE FUTURE OF MICROPROCESSORS• no one can really make accurate prediction : • success of Intel family should continue for quite a few years• what may occur is : will occur • a change to RISC technology, • but more likely a change to a new technology being developed jointly by Intel and Hewlett-Packard• new technology : • even will embody CISC instruction set of 80X86 family , • so that software for system will survive• basic premise behind this technology : many • will communicate directly with each other, allowing parallel processing without any change to instruction set or program

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