Period Ancient Period Pre-Modern Modern Recent Period (before 1700A.D) or Classical Period (1850 (1950 Period -1950) onwards) (1700-1850)Important Heredotus,Thales Verenius, Kant, Ratzel, Semple, Harvey,Geographers Erratosthenes, Humbolt, Huntington, La Chorley, Strabo, Marco Ritter etc. Blache, Hagget, Polo, Al-Maqdisi, G.Taylor etc. Schaefer, Al-Biruni, Ibn- Hartshorne Batuta, Shen Kua etc. etc.Theories/ By the means of Empiricism, Determinism, QuantitativeMethods/ Voyages & Generalization, Possibilism, Revolution,Approaches expeditions Regionalizatio Stop-n-go Radicalism, observations were n, Chorology determinism. Behaviouralism made. etc. Humanism, Scientific Methods
GEOGRAPHY…?EMPIRICAL SCIENCEOBEDIENT TO DISCIPLINEGENERALIZATIONREGIONALISATIONAREIAL DIFFERENCIATIONPERTAINMNET TO SCIENCEHUMAN-ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIPYIELDABLENESS
Geography means the study of earth surface and its variable phenomenon inthe perspectives of four sets of questions which are- Related to identification of the patterns of natural and cultural features as found over the surface of the earth. Related to the distribution of the natural and human/cultural over the surface of the earth. Related to the explanation or the causal relationships between Features and the processes and phenomena. As a means of seeking alternatives and giving the subject an applied`dimension that can assist decision makers in planning and development at a variety of geographical scales.
Geography has been Empirical Science* One should proceed from Observation to Observation* Not from Preconceived opinions to hypothesis to observation. X
Geography has established itself as a ‘mother discipline’ from which otherSpecialized disciplines like metrology, soil science, plant ecology and regionalscience have emerged.It has multi-disciplinary perspective and is an outward-looking discipline.Its an Inter-Disciplinary subject including physical as well as social sciences,Studying functions and their effects of elements of physical and culturalEnvironment.
(Systematic Geography/General Geography)Systematic Geography is organized in terms of particular phenomena of generalgeographic significance, each of which is studied in terms of the relations of itsareal differentiation with the others.It seeks to formulate empirical generalizations or laws of the phenomena studiedand their universal application, in terms of significance to areal differentiation.Systematic method in geography attempts to take one or a few aspects of thehuman environment or the human population and studies their varying per-formance over a pre-defined geographical space.
(Regional Geography/Special Geography)Regional geography attempts to organize the knowledge of all interrelated formsof areal differentiation in localized individual units of area, which it mustorganize into a system of division and subdivision of the total earth surface.Regional methods are characteristically broad based and include considerationnot only of the physical environment of the individual units of a given area butalso of the population of the unit.This evolved Concept of Region- that each individual unit of a givenarea is unique and distinguishable from one another.
There exists variation over the surface of the earth in it physical as wellas cultural Environment. Geography attempts to study :-Geography evolved as a CHOROLOGICAL SCIENCE
(Scientific Approach)Neither complete ‘Systematic Science’ nor ‘Social Science’Borrows generic concepts or type classification from systematic science.Applies those concepts for description of phenomena and interpretationof their interrelations as accurate as possible.Recent trends shows inclination towards Scientific Methodology, with introductionof modern techniques for data collection and map making. GIS Remote Sensing Cartography
Neither studies ‘Human’ nor ‘Nature’ POPULATION •SizeEssentially studies that man-environment relationship •Distributionas developed in different locations on the surface of •Densitythe Earth, in the form of an assemblage of interrelated •Growth ratePhenomena. RESOURCES Positive Supply Negative feedback Demand feedback Use ENVIRONMEN T CHARACTERS Abiotic Biotic
Yieldableness means “DISPOSITION to YIELD” Study of Geography The ultimate goal of Geography is to yield for human FOR Interest and benefit. Yieldableness Whatever the method, approach or technique is L apllied Geography is meant to yield for LEAD E TO A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. D SUSTAINABLE“…….Development of resources…..typological classification DEVELOPMENTand regionalization of natural landscape…..of the earth, forthe purpose of their utilization and regeneration….subjectof geography” ---- A.M. Ryabchikov“Geography must serves the national interest” ---- Scherepfer