The Big Bang
What is a Black
Really Said &
Science and religion have been rivals since
the dawn of time. Before the 20th century
there was no general consensus on
whether the universe had a beginning or
In 1916 Albert Einstein
published the theory of
relativity which not only
gave him international
recognition but also proved
that the universe had a
beginning and was
His equations could predict how fast
the galaxies were moving and
therefore proved that the universe
was continuously expanding.
However Einstein did not
like the idea that the
universe had a beginning and
therefore changed his
equation by adding a
“Cosmological constant” to
make his Theory Of
Relativity to support the
Steady State Theory that
the universe is eternal.
oAccording to the theory, the
Big Bang occurred
approximately 13.798 ±
0.037 billion years ago.
oGeorges Lemaitre first
proposed what became the Big
Bang theory in what he called
his "hypothesis of the
The Big Bang Timeline
Time Era Temperature Characteristics of the Universe
0 to 10-43 s Big Bang infinite
infinitely small, infinitely dense
1 force in nature - Supergravity
10-43 s Planck Time 1032 K
Earliest known time that can be described by modern
2 forces in nature, gravity, GUT
10-35 s End of GUT 1027 K
3 forces in nature, gravity, strong nuclear, electroweak
Quarks and leptons form
(along with their anti-particles)
10-35 to 10-33 s Inflation 1027 K
Size of the Universe drastically increased, by factor of
10-12 s End of unified forces 1015 K
4 forces in nature,
protons and neutrons start forming from quarks
10-7 s Heavy Particle 1014 K
proton, neutron production
in full swing
10-4 s Light particle 1012 K electrons and positrons form
100 s (a few minutes)
Nucleosynthesis era 109 - 107 K helium, deuterium, and a few other elements form
380,000 years Recombination (Decoupling) 3000 K
Matter and radiation separate
End of radiation domination, start of matter domination of
500 million yrs Galaxy formation 10 K galaxies and other large structures form in the universe
14 billion years
Now 3 K You are reading this table, that's what's happening.
▪ The Steady State Theory is a theory and model alternative to
the Big Bang theory of the universe's origin .
▪ In steady state views, new matter is continuously created as the
universe expands, thus adhering to perfect cosmological principle.
▪ Sir James Jeans, in the 1920s, was the first to conjecture a steady
▪ The idea was then revised in 1948 by Fred Hoyle, Thomas
Gold, Hermann Bondi and others.
Big Bang Theory
Theory , You
don’t have any
Steady State Theory
In 1920 Belgian
cosmologist and Roman
Catholic Priest proved
was a mistake
He predicted that if the Big Bang occurred it
would release “Cosmic Microwave Radiation”
that should still be in the universe today.
Cosmic Microwave Radiation is the oldest
electromagnetic radiation that the
hypothesized Big Bang produced in its early
However a lot of Astrophysicists were skeptical of the
proposal for the proposal due to two Reasons.
He lacked empirical evidence .
Astrophysicists felt like he had a
secret agenda that being a
catholic priest he wanted to push
The Big Bang Theory so it would
line up with the Biblical creation
account that God created universe
from a single point in time.
▪ Though Lemaitre faced a lot of opposition. In 1965
scientists discovered the “Cosmic Microwave
Radiation” that he had predicted. To this day the
“Cosmic Microwave Radiation” remains as the
strongest evidence to support The Big Bang
▪ Whether it was for science or supporting his faith
he has still left a legacy as one of the founders of
The Big Bang Theory.
The theory of general
relativity predicts that a sufficiently
compact mass will usually deform
spacetime to form a black hole.
Around a black hole, there is a
mathematically defined surface
called an event horizon that marks
the point of no return.
The hole is called "black" because it
absorbs all the light that hits the
horizon, reflecting nothing, just like a
perfect black body in thermodynamics.
A Black Hole is a region of spacetime from which gravity prevents
anything, including light, from escaping.
On 22 January Stephen Hawking wrote a
paper and everywhere there was news
There are no black holes.
Stephen Hawking changed his mind.
But all this is wrong because Hawking
never said it. But before we tell you what
he said lets talk about two theories.
Einstein's theory of
general relativity suggests
that the astronaut falling
into a black hole would
happily pass through the
event horizon, unaware of
his or her impending doom,
before being crushed at the
'singularity', the black
hole’s hypothetical infinitely
Quantum theory dictates
that the event horizon must
actually be transformed
into a highly energetic
region, or 'firewall', that
would burn the astronaut to
a crisp even before he
reaches the singularity.