Evolution of universe


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it gives a complete knowledge of evolution or origin of universe and all the theories related to it.

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Evolution of universe

  1. 1. Contents : Science and Religion Relativity Theory The Big Bang Theory Steady State Theory Cosmic Microwave Radiation What is a Black Hole Existence of Black Holes Relativity Theory V/S Quantum Theory What Hawking Really Said & Meant
  2. 2. Science and religion have been rivals since the dawn of time. Before the 20th century there was no general consensus on whether the universe had a beginning or not.
  3. 3. RELATIVITY THEORY In 1916 Albert Einstein published the theory of relativity which not only gave him international recognition but also proved that the universe had a beginning and was continuously expanding.
  4. 4. His equations could predict how fast the galaxies were moving and therefore proved that the universe was continuously expanding. However Einstein did not like the idea that the universe had a beginning and therefore changed his equation by adding a “Cosmological constant” to make his Theory Of Relativity to support the Steady State Theory that the universe is eternal.
  5. 5. oAccording to the theory, the Big Bang occurred approximately 13.798 ± 0.037 billion years ago. oGeorges Lemaitre first proposed what became the Big Bang theory in what he called his "hypothesis of the primeval atom
  6. 6. The Big Bang Timeline Time Era Temperature Characteristics of the Universe 0 to 10-43 s Big Bang infinite infinitely small, infinitely dense Primeval fireball 1 force in nature - Supergravity 10-43 s Planck Time 1032 K Earliest known time that can be described by modern physics 2 forces in nature, gravity, GUT 10-35 s End of GUT 1027 K 3 forces in nature, gravity, strong nuclear, electroweak Quarks and leptons form (along with their anti-particles) 10-35 to 10-33 s Inflation 1027 K Size of the Universe drastically increased, by factor of 1030to 1040 10-12 s End of unified forces 1015 K 4 forces in nature, protons and neutrons start forming from quarks 10-7 s Heavy Particle 1014 K proton, neutron production in full swing 10-4 s Light particle 1012 K electrons and positrons form 100 s (a few minutes) Nucleosynthesis era 109 - 107 K helium, deuterium, and a few other elements form 380,000 years Recombination (Decoupling) 3000 K Matter and radiation separate End of radiation domination, start of matter domination of the Universe 500 million yrs Galaxy formation 10 K galaxies and other large structures form in the universe 14 billion years or so Now 3 K You are reading this table, that's what's happening.
  7. 7. ▪ The Steady State Theory is a theory and model alternative to the Big Bang theory of the universe's origin . ▪ In steady state views, new matter is continuously created as the universe expands, thus adhering to perfect cosmological principle. ▪ Sir James Jeans, in the 1920s, was the first to conjecture a steady state cosmology. ▪ The idea was then revised in 1948 by Fred Hoyle, Thomas Gold, Hermann Bondi and others.
  8. 8. Big Bang Theory Steady State Theory , You don’t have any supporters now. Steady State Theory
  9. 9. In 1920 Belgian cosmologist and Roman Catholic Priest proved that Einstein’s “Cosmological Constant“ was a mistake
  10. 10. He predicted that if the Big Bang occurred it would release “Cosmic Microwave Radiation” that should still be in the universe today. Cosmic Microwave Radiation is the oldest electromagnetic radiation that the hypothesized Big Bang produced in its early moments.
  11. 11. However a lot of Astrophysicists were skeptical of the proposal for the proposal due to two Reasons.  He lacked empirical evidence .  Astrophysicists felt like he had a secret agenda that being a catholic priest he wanted to push The Big Bang Theory so it would line up with the Biblical creation account that God created universe from a single point in time.
  12. 12. ▪ Though Lemaitre faced a lot of opposition. In 1965 scientists discovered the “Cosmic Microwave Radiation” that he had predicted. To this day the “Cosmic Microwave Radiation” remains as the strongest evidence to support The Big Bang Theory. ▪ Whether it was for science or supporting his faith he has still left a legacy as one of the founders of The Big Bang Theory.
  13. 13. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass will usually deform spacetime to form a black hole. Around a black hole, there is a mathematically defined surface called an event horizon that marks the point of no return. The hole is called "black" because it absorbs all the light that hits the horizon, reflecting nothing, just like a perfect black body in thermodynamics. A Black Hole is a region of spacetime from which gravity prevents anything, including light, from escaping.
  14. 14. On 22 January Stephen Hawking wrote a paper and everywhere there was news  There are no black holes.  Stephen Hawking changed his mind. But all this is wrong because Hawking never said it. But before we tell you what he said lets talk about two theories.
  15. 15. Einstein's theory of general relativity suggests that the astronaut falling into a black hole would happily pass through the event horizon, unaware of his or her impending doom, before being crushed at the 'singularity', the black hole’s hypothetical infinitely dense core. Quantum theory dictates that the event horizon must actually be transformed into a highly energetic region, or 'firewall', that would burn the astronaut to a crisp even before he reaches the singularity.