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Motivation

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  • 1. Motivation Presented by Anna M.
  • 2. Motivation • It refers to the internal state or condition that influences behavior and gives it direction in relation to physiological conditions, interests, attitudes, and aspirations.
  • 3. Two components of Motivation • Need. It arise from some deficits within the individual. The deficit may be physiological or psychological. • Drives. Drives are based on need and can be observed in overt/ obvious behaviour.
  • 4. Functions of Motives 1. Activates or energizes the individual. 2. leads, directs and regulates behavior. 3. Selecting mechanism.
  • 5. Theories of Motivation 1. Instinct theory. A descriptive term for a complex, unlearned, adaptive response, an unlearned pattern of reflexes appearing in all members of species.
  • 6. 2. Psycho- analytic/ Drive theory. Postulates that an organism is motived to eliminate or reduce bodily tensions. It refers to any physiological condition which impels the organism to become active.
  • 7. 3. Incentive theory. The fundamental assumptions of this theory is that if that is a certain desirable goal can be anticipated following the completion of a particular action, in effect, the organism likely to be motivated to perform that action.
  • 8. 4. Arousal theory. This theory assumed that, this is an alternative to drive theory which stipulates a moderate level of stimulation in reinforcing. Arousal is an increase in the degree of excitement or tension of the organism.
  • 9. 7. Association theory( thorn dike). Deprivation of need will cause the individual does something to satisfy the need. 8. Humanistic or Need Gratification Theory. Maslow postulates that individual does something to satisfy deficiency needs.
  • 10. 9. Cognitive theory (hunt). Man is rational and consciously decides what he will and will not do. 10. Self- efficacy theory (Bandura).
  • 11. 11. Self- determination theory.
  • 12. Kinds of Motivation 1. Intrinsic. An individual’s internal desire to perform a particular task. 2. Extrinsic. Promoted by factors external to the individual, and unrelated to the task being performed such as recognition of other reward.
  • 13. Classification of Motives • Physiological Motivation • Psychological Motivation
  • 14. Need Hierarchy Theory • is based on the assumption that people are motivated to satisfy a number of needs that money can satisfy directly or indirectly. • Abraham Maslow • The basic human needs placed by Maslow is ascending order of importance.
  • 15. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization Esteem Love/ Belongingness Safety Needs Basic Needs/ Physiological

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