• It refers to the internal state or condition that
influences behavior and gives it direction in
relation to physiological conditions, interests,
attitudes, and aspirations.
Two components of Motivation
• Need. It arise from some deficits within the
individual. The deficit may be physiological or
• Drives. Drives are based on need and can be
observed in overt/ obvious behaviour.
Functions of Motives
1. Activates or energizes the individual.
2. leads, directs and regulates behavior.
3. Selecting mechanism.
Theories of Motivation
1. Instinct theory. A descriptive term for a
complex, unlearned, adaptive response, an
unlearned pattern of reflexes appearing in all
members of species.
2. Psycho- analytic/ Drive theory. Postulates that
an organism is motived to eliminate or reduce
bodily tensions. It refers to any physiological
condition which impels the organism to become
3. Incentive theory. The fundamental assumptions
of this theory is that if that is a certain desirable
goal can be anticipated following the completion
of a particular action, in effect, the organism
likely to be motivated to perform that action.
4. Arousal theory. This theory assumed that, this
is an alternative to drive theory which stipulates
a moderate level of stimulation in reinforcing.
Arousal is an increase in the degree of
excitement or tension of the organism.
7. Association theory( thorn dike). Deprivation of
need will cause the individual does something to
satisfy the need.
8. Humanistic or Need Gratification Theory.
Maslow postulates that individual does
something to satisfy deficiency needs.
9. Cognitive theory (hunt). Man is rational and
consciously decides what he will and will not do.
10. Self- efficacy theory (Bandura).
Kinds of Motivation
1. Intrinsic. An individual’s internal desire to
perform a particular task.
2. Extrinsic. Promoted by factors external to the
individual, and unrelated to the task being
performed such as recognition of other reward.
Classification of Motives
• Physiological Motivation
• Psychological Motivation
Need Hierarchy Theory
• is based on the assumption that people are
motivated to satisfy a number of needs that
money can satisfy directly or indirectly.
• Abraham Maslow
• The basic human needs placed by Maslow is
ascending order of importance.