APPLICATION OF PSYCHOLOGY IN PHYSICALEDUCATION AND SPORTS - Dr. Sundar Raj Urs
BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGYI. Basic science Abnormal Biological Cognitive Developmental Experimental Evolutionary Mathematical Neuropsychology Personality Positive Psychophysics Social /Transpersonal
II. Applied science Clinical · Educational Forensic Health Industrial and organizational School Exercise and Sports
MEANING AND DEFINITION Sport psychology is the scientific study of people and their behaviors in sport contexts and the practical application of that knowledge. Sport psychologists identify principles and guidelines that professionals can use to help adults and children participate in and benefit from sport and exercise activities in both team and individual environments.
Sport psychologists have two objectives in mind: (a) to understand how psychological factors affect an individuals physical performance (b) to understand how participation in sport and exercise affects a persons psychological development, health and well-being. Sport psychology deals with increasing performance by managing emotions and minimizing the psychological effects of injury and poor performance. Some of the most important skills taught are goal setting, relaxation, visualization, self-talk, awareness and control, concentration, confidence, using rituals, attribution training, and periodization.
WHAT DO SPORT PSYCHOLOGISTS DO? The contemporary sport psychologist is expected to fill three primary roles, they are: Research, Teaching and Consulting. Research: The primary role of any participant in tertiary education is to further the knowledge in that field. Sport psychologists conduct research in many areas. They may study the arousal levels of athletes before a hockey game, or ask children why they play sport. The findings are then shared with colleagues, allowing others to benefit from this research.
Teaching: Many trained sport psychologists are expected to teach in their chosen field, whether it be at a tertiary level or teaching an intern in the field of psychology. This is so the skill is passed on and sport psychology remains strong around the world. Consulting: The consulting process is very important as one has to consult with individual athletes or team athletes to derive skills to enhance performance levels. Some sport and exercise psychologists work in the fitness industry to design exercise programs that maximize participation and promote psychological well- being.
THE HISTORY OF SPORT PSYCHOLOGY The history of sport psychology dates back to the late 1800s and from there has grown in to a scientific phenomenon to enhance the performance of individuals in the area of sport. The history of sport psychology falls into six periods, they are; Period 1: The Early years (1895-1920), Period 2: The Griffith Era (1921-1938), Period 3: Preparation for the Future (1939-1965), Period 4: the Establishment of Academic Sport psychology (1966-1977), Period 5: Multidisciplinary Science and Practice in Sport and Exercise Psychology (1978-2000), Period 6: Contemporary Sport and Exercise Psychology (2000-Present).
SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY Today, sport and exercise psychologists have begun to research and provide information in the ways that psychological well-being and vigorous physical activity are related. This idea of psychophysiology, monitoring brain activity during exercise has aided in this research. Also, sport psychologists are beginning to consider exercise to be a therapeutic addition to healthy mental adjustment.
Just recently have sport psychologists begun to be recognized for the valuable contributions they make in assisting athletes and their coaches in improving performance during competitive situations. Understanding how physical exercise may contribute to the psychological well-being of non-athletes. Many can benefit from sport psychologists:a) athletes who are trying to improve their performance,b) injured athletes who are looking for motivation,c) individuals looking to overcome the pressure of competition,d) young children involved in youth sports as well as their parents.
Special focus is geared towards psychological assessment of athletes. Assessment can be both, focused on selection of athletes and the team set up of rosters as well as on professional guidance and counseling of single athletes.
PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING Psychological skills training (PST) refers to consistent practice of mental or psychological skills. Coaches and athletes know that physical skills need to be regularly practiced to become better. Similar to physical skills, psychological skills such as maintaining concentration and regulating arousal levels also need to be practiced. Psychological skills training programmes are very common but not limited to the sporting arena. These PST programmes should be planned, implemented and supervised by a trained sport psychologist.
WHY IS PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS TRAINING IMPORTANT? All sport and exercise participants fall victim to mistakes and mental letdowns. Mental and emotional components often overshadow the purely physical and technical aspects of the performance. To overcome this, one must become equally fit both mentally and physically. An individuals success or failure in the sport and exercise arena lies in the ability of the individual to practice both physical and mental skills.
PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN THE NEWMILLENNIUM Modern Society in the new millennium has envisaged drastic changes in the entire life style of the populace. These changes have not only been restricted to any specific field of life but could be seen in all walks of life. Academic impetus during the schooling and the Career impetus while one is on a job emphasize on mental activities subjecting the person to stress and strain thereby affecting the mental health and ability to function at the optimum level irrespective of whether one is a student or a worker.
A cursory analysis of student‟s daily activities shows an overload of mental activities and even on the selected physical activities time urgency is of primary concern. This had led to a fall in the optimum potential of the student in his activity. Examination Anxiety, Social isolation, etc. affects the mental health of the student.
The story is not different even after schooling. The cozy work environment, user-friendly technology, makes individuals to strive towards career growth overlooking the health. Stress related problems are one of the most important concerns of the management. Lack of appropriate physical activities, ignorance of health related knowledge could be the factors that lead to the above.
PSYCHOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS Psychological studies are aimed at establishing body mind relationship and emphasize that sound body leads to sound mind. Results of these studies are useful in enhancing the physical performance of the sports person and also the use of physical activities in the therapy. 17
Psychological application in Physical Education The studies conducted Griest, Klien Faris, German and Margon Why vigorous physical activity Positive attitudes Feel better Capacity for change in different phenomenon situations of Life Patience Symptoms release and conscious alterations and decision making Self Confidence Enhanced Psychological well being 18
The study conducted by Sachs and Paragam have noticed thatwithdrawals from regular exercises and running can be easily notedthrough symptoms such as anxiety Muscle twisting Degree of Addiction Tension to exercise Nervousness Quilt Irritable Joy of running Mukesh Ambani one of Asia’s richest Businessmen – Regular 14 miles jogging 19
Youth Problems especially in the age group of Twenties Psychological Mal adjustment Unemployment Insecurity Irrational academic educational syllabi Deviate behaviourAddiction to Anti-social Sex related Drugs Deviance alcohol behaviour behaviour 20
For the above said problems diagnosis at individual level may not bepossible. Hence treatment would also not be sought Good addiction programmes Brisk walking Running Hiking Swimming Physical Exercises Keep his body and mind In healthy state and Avoids from deviate behaviours 21
• The study conducted by Katzmargy Church and Blair- 2004, established a great level of relationship between exercise and „life style‟ – the study proved that the lack of physical exercises of activity leads to significant health threat, low level of physical activity have been associate with higher insistences of all can be Mobility and Mortality (Death) particularly with life style disease, including ceremony leant disease and type diabetes.
Exercises leading to Psychological well-being Personality Changes Introversion Extraversion Psychological Parameters of Self EvidenceSelf-Sufficiency Imaginativeness Feeling of Control 23
• The research conducted by the Dienseber and his colleagues at the University of Nebraska, have revealed the significant implication of our thinking in this area.• Psychological system involved aerobic exercises and in the experience of emotional states are frequently the same. Running may therefore be expected to have an impact on short term emotional functioning and temperament. 24
• Running may stimulate the development of the capacity of the sympathetic nervous system and associated glandular responses in term.• This increased psychological capacity may be the major course for indication of reduced emotinal tension in both state and trait studies, as well as the major cause of reduced anxiety.
Exercise as a Therapy• A Safe Psychotherapeutic tool.• Running Therapy leads to removal of Phobia.• A general treatment for depression and anxiety.• Counseling and Psychotherapy - Physical Exercises - Running and Brick walking 26
• Research in the field of psychological and behavioural medicine have began experimentally established the fact that mind can effect the body.• This can be noted from psychosomatic disorders as migraine, headache, Peptic wear, hypertension, bronchitic asthama and sexual impotence.• It is also becoming evident that the body appropriately utilize, can affect the mind in constructive ways.• Thus physical and psychological changes occur when an individual exercise at 75 to 80% of his or her maximum cardiac output for 30 minutes at least 4 or 5 times a week, Burger-1984. 27
• The research work of Burger suggests that the changes includes improved mood, self-esteem, and work performance as well as increased cardiovascular endurance and improvements in muscle tone, digestion, and blood volume. The research also suggested that the prescribed exercise must be strenuous in order to produce significant psychological change.• A review of the present youth problems especially in the age group of twenties, depict a good lot of psychological maladjustment and related problems.
CONCLUSION :• The felling of runners high may be obtained through proper guidance by the physical educators by way of brisk walking or running in a cool, calm whether with low humidity.• Physical well-being and health, (both physical and mental) needs to be encouraged simultaneously. 29
• Proper orientations is required to the researchers and academicians towards the need for changing the attitude of negative or neutral feeling, towards physical education to positive feelings.• I would like to emphasize by a saying “Save Life Through Physical Activities”.
SUGGESTED MEASURES At the School Level Physical Education should not be restricted to only sports and games. Emphasis should be not only on winning but participating and deriving the benefits out of the physical activities. Theoretical inputs about health, fitness, wellbeing should be inculcated right from the elementary level. Periodic feedback about the physical fitness and health of the student should be made available to the parents through proper medical examinations from the competent persons. 31
Interest and talents among the students need to be tapped at the earliest and the free periods, vacations etc. to be utilized to strengthen the potentials. Physical education should help in developing a positive health attitude, which need to be adopted in one‟s later life. At the Adult Level: Recreational facilities provided by the employer should include scope for rigorous physical activities. 32
Stress management strategies in terms of breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, meditation etc. should be integrated within one‟s work life. Orientation towards the mal effects of unhealthy food habits, substance abuses like smoking alcohol are to be provided periodically at the work place.