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  1. 1. Kashmir Contr over sy PRESENTED BY:ANKUR SIWACH
  2. 2. OVERVIEW  The Kashmir conflict is a territorial dispute over Kashmir.  There are total 4 parties involved in this dispute – India, Pakistan, China and the people of Kashmir.
  3. 3. Partition and dispute  Before Independence from British in 1947 from 1820, Kashmir was ruled by the Maharaja of Kashmir who was Hindu although the majority of the population were Muslim, except the Jammu region.  The partition was made on religious lines resulting in to the formation of two separate countries – India and Pakistan. Pakistan insisted that Kashmir should be given to it.
  4. 4.  Because of its location, Kashmir could choose to join either India or Pakistan. Maharaja Hari Singh was the ruler of Kashmir. Unable to decide which nation Kashmir should join, Hari Singh chose to remain neutral.
  5. 5. Indo-Pakistani War of 1947  But his hopes of remaining independent were dashed in October 1947, as Pakistan sent in Muslim tribesmen who were knocking at the gates of the capital Srinagar.  Hari Singh appealed to the Indian government for military assistance and fled to India. He signed the “Instrument of Accession”, giving up Kashmir to India on October 26. The Instrument of Accession of Kashmir to India was accepted by Viceroy Lord Mountbatten of Burma.
  6. 6.  India and Pakistan fought the first war over Kashmir in 1947-48. India referred the dispute to the United Nations. In a resolution, the UN asked Pakistan to remove its troops, after which India was also to withdraw the bulk of its forces.  India was confident that it will win the referendum, because Sheikh Abdullah, the most influential Kashmiri mass leader, was firmly on its side. Hence an emergency Govt. was formed on October 30, 1948 with Sheikh Abdullah as the “Prime Minister”.
  7. 7. LOC – LINE OF CONTROL  Pakistan ignored the UN mandate and continued fighting, holding on to the portion of Kashmir under its control. On January 1, 1949, a ceasefire was agreed, with 65 % of the territory under Indian control and the remaining 35% with Pakistan.  The ceasefire was intended to be temporary, but the Line of Control remains the military control line between the Indian and Pakistanicontrolled parts of the state of Jammu & Kashmir.
  8. 8. Tashkent agreement  In 1957, Kashmir was incorporated into the Indian Union. It was given a special status under Article 370 of India's constitution, which ensures, among other things, that non-Kashmiri Indians cannot buy property there.  Fighting broke out again in 1965, but a ceasefire was established. Indian Prime Minister, Lal Bhadur Shastri, and Pakistani President, M Ayub Khan, signed the Tashkent agreement on January 1, 1966.  They resolved to try to end the dispute, but the death of Mr Shastri and the rise of Gen Yahya Khan in Pakistan resulted in stalemate (deadlock).
  9. 9. Simla Agreement  In 1971 a third war, resulting in the formation of Bangladesh was broken out and India declared war on December 3, 1971. When Indians entered 50 km into the area of Pakistan, a ceasefire was reached.  In 1972 Indira Gandhi, the Indian prime minister, and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto signed the Simla Agreement, which repeated the promises made in Tashkent.
  10. 10. Infiltration of Pakistani guerrillas  The status quo was maintained until 1989. Thereafter Pakistani guerrillas struck in the Indian Kashmir valley. They established a reign of terror and drove out almost all the Hindus from the valley. Meanwhile Indian and Pakistani troops regularly exchanged fire at the border.  India and Pakistan both tested nuclear devices in 1998, and then in 1999 test-fired missiles. When the Indian Prime Minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee, visited Lahore by bus in 1999, the world felt that such a genuine effort at friendly neighborhood relations would lower the tension along the LOC.
  11. 11. Kargil War & Cross-border troubles  But, again the cross-LOC firing in Kargil began during the mid-1998. Indian forces drove them out fighting bravely. The death toll, including both soldiers and civilians, was more than 30,000.  India argued that the infiltrators were trained and armed by Pakistan, and based in "Azad Kashmir" with the full knowledge of the Pakistani government. Pakistan said that they were freedom fighters (!) from Kashmir and that it was giving only moral support.
  12. 12. A Few Questions to Ponder over     Was Mr. Jawaharlal Nehru mainly responsible for the Kashmir issue? Why India always takes soft stand? Shouldn’t we be offensive rather than defensive? Shouldn’t the Article 370 of India's constitution be removed? Isn’t Kashmir our Natinal Pride ? Shall we allow Pak to snetch it from us ? – NEVER.