Robotix Tutorial 6
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Robotix Tutorial 6

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Robotix Tutorial 6 Robotix Tutorial 6 Presentation Transcript

  • TECHNOLOGY ROBOTICS SOCIETY Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
  • A TUTORIAL ON ROBOTICS Sensors
  • Basic Parts Of Our Mobile Robot
    • Locomotion system
    • Power supply system
    • Actuators
    • Sensory devices for feedback
    • Sensor Data processing unit
    • Control system
    Copyright © Robotix Team, IIT Kharagpur
  • Sensors
    • Analogous to human sensory organs
      • Eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin
    • Sensors help the robot knowing its surroundings better
    • Improves its actions and decision making ability
    • Provides feedback control
  • LDR - Light Dependent Resistor
    • Made of cadmium sulphide
    • Resistance between two terminals vary depending on the intensity of light
    • Can be used to differentiate contrast colours
  • LED – Light Emitting Diodes
    • Used generally with LDRs to make a complete sensor module.
    • Act as a source of light for the LDRs.
    • The main specification of LED are its current rating=20mA, typical cut in voltage=2V,voltage is around 4.5V.
  • Thermistor
    • Manufactured from the oxides of the transition metals - manganese, cobalt, copper and nickel
    • Resistor depends on temperature
    • Commonly available temperature sensors are LM35,DS1621 thermistor.
  • IR Photo Diode
    • Detects presence of Infra Red radiations
    • Used for obstacle proximity sensing
    • IR Data Communication
    • Used in combination with IR LEDs
  • Sensor Interfacing Light Sensing Module using LED-LDR combination
  • Sensor Interfacing Bump Detector Module
  • An Example - Line Follower
    • A line follower is a robot capable of tracking a line drawn on a surface
    • Optical sensors capture the line position at the front end of the robot
    • The robot is steered to keep it always over the line
  • Block Layout of Line Follower Optical Sensor Array Steering Controller Left Motor Right Motor
  • Line Following Algorithm Step1: All the sensors are assigned some weight such as Sensor 1 = a1 = 3 Sensor 2 = a2 = 2 Sensor 3 = a3 = 1 Sensor 4 = a4 = -1 Sensor 5 = a5 = -2 Sensor 6 = a6 = -3 Step2: Let b1 – b6 denote the state of each sensor. 0 for white line and 1 for black line Step3: Line Position = Σ aibi Step4: Vcm is fixed, predetermined ω cm is proportional to Line position Step5: Vl = Vcm + ( ω cm / a) Vr = Vcm – ( ω cm / a) a : Separation between left/right wheels