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Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
Pricing of petroleum products in India
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Pricing of petroleum products in India

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  • 1. DYNAMIC PRICING OF GASOLINE
  • 2. Prices of fuel vary depend to the following factors:• Cost of buying finished products in country.• Government Excise and tax rates• Government subsidies for fuel• Currency Fluctuations• Increasing oil demand• Limits in refining capacity• Market speculation
  • 3. Structure of Petroleum Industry.[5]• CONSIST OF TWO MAJOR ACTIVITIES – UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM• UPSTREAM – Exploration and Production of Crude Oil and Gas• DOWNSTREAM – Refining of crude oil into various products and marketing of these products• 80% of crude oil demand met through imports and balance 20% by indigenous production• .
  • 4. Evolution of Pricing System in India• Till 1974: Market determined pricing system was there• 1974-1998: Administrative price mechanism was followed• 1998-2006: Import Parity Price Mechanism• 2006-Present: Trade Parity Price Mechanism
  • 5. Salient Features of the APM[6]• The well head price of the indigenous crude oil was determined as the weighted average of cost of production of Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) and Oil India Limited (OIL), which are government-owned companies involved in upstream activities i.e. exploration and production, plus 15 per cent post-tax return on capital employed to compensate for the operating expenses.
  • 6. Salient Features of the APM• Pricing of crude oil at a uniform FOB cost to all the refineries based on the pooled FOB price of indigenous and imported crude oil irrespective of whether they processed indigenous crude or imported crude• Refining costs and return (refining margins) were also decided on retention basis. Every three years, the Government used to determine the standard refining cost and return on capital employed for each refinery. Retention margin per tonne for that refinery used to remain constant for that refinery during the three year period.
  • 7. APM primarily helped in• An orderly growth of the oil industry• Continuous availability of products to consumers at fairly stable prices• Insulation of marketing companies, refineries and oil producers from international price fluctuations and protection of their market shares.• Achievement of socio-economic objectives of the government to a large extent
  • 8. Limitations of APM• APM regime could not attract investors to invest in upstream and downstream sectors due to Government interference.• Since an assured return was provided on capital employed, there was no guarantee that the facilities put up by the oil companies were being used in the most efficient and productive manner.• APM could not accommodate the private players.
  • 9. Import Parity Price Mechanism• From 1 April 1998 the crude oil producers had been paid a pre- announced phased increase in percentage (75% for 1998-99, 77.5% for 1999-2000, 80% for 2000-01 and 82.5 % for 2001-02) of the international FOB prices on a year to year basis which was increased to 100% till 2002.
  • 10. Trade Parity Price Mechanism• From 2006, Government decided to use trade parity mechanism where in the price will be fixed as 80:20 ratio i.e 80% import parity and 20% export parity (which is almost equal to the respective percentages of imports and exports).• The export parity price could be incorporated because Indian began to export certain petro products. So, by shifting to this mechanism, there was a considerable reduction in prices.
  • 11. Factors considered in Import parity pricing[7]• FOB prices of the respective marker crudes adjusted for Gross Product Worth (in US $/ barrel)• Ocean Freight (Average Freight Rate Assessment for VLCCs)• Insurance• Customs Duty• Ocean Loss• NCCD @ Rs 50/T (applicable from 1 March 2003)• Port dues (Wharfage, Port Charges, Landing Charges, Bank Charges etc.)• Octroi (applicable for Mumbai refineries of HPCL and BPCL only)
  • 12. S.No. Cost Component Unit Basis of Computation1 FOB Value $/barrel Average of mean of high and low quotes of Platts Asia Pacific Arab Gulf (APAG) and Petroleum Argus Asia Pacific Products Report for Arab Gulf market during the “pricing period”.2 Premium/Discount $/barrel Monthly average of spot premium/discounts for the same period as FOB as published in Argus/Platts for motor spirit (MS) or high speed diesel (HSD)3 Ocean Freight $/barrel World Scale freight rates from Bahrain (Sitra) to thedesignated Indian ports adjusted by (Converted by using AFRA (Average Freight Rate Assessment) for MR (Medium Range) vessel size. The conversion factor 7.90 designated ports for MS/HSD are Jamnagar, Mumbai, Kochi and non-refinery ports are bbl per MT) Kandla and Paradeep. Additional AFRA of 50 points is added for Haldia port in view of higher crude freight cost due to port constraints.4 C&F Price $/KL Total of 1 to 3 above (Converted to KL using conversion factor of 6.2898 bbl per KL)5 Insurance $/KL Actual applicable tariff rates set by GIC (General Insurance Corporation)6 CIF Price $/KL Total of 4 and 5 above7 Exchange Rate Rs/$ Monthly average (for the same period as FOB) of the available RBI reference rates during the pricing period8 CIF Price Rs/KL Converted to Indian rupees9 Customs Duty Rs/KL As applicable. Assessable value for calculation of customs duty would include the CIF price and landing charges at 1% in line with the customs rules.10 Ocean Loss Rs/KL As permitted under the APM11 Wharfage, Port Rs/KL Dues applicable for the port based on the official tariff rates of the respective ports or Charges, Landing nearest government port, in case of a private port, whichever is lower. Bank charges at Charges, Bank the prevailing rates as assessed by SBI. Charges etc.12 Landed Cost (Import Rs/KL Total of 8 to 11 above
  • 13. Build-up from Ex-storage Point Selling Price to Retail Selling PriceEx-Storage Point Price Common at all RefineriesFreight Notional Rail Freight pertaining to APM periodState Specific Cost At rates applicable for respective statesSales tax/VAT At rates applicable for respective statesDealer commission Retail and wholesale as decided by state governmentsSelling Price at Location Total of Above
  • 14. Prevailing Problems in Petroleum Industry in India[7]• . The government oil marketing companies (OMCs) purchase crude oil at market rates but are required to sell diesel, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at government-set prices, resulting in losses.• These losses are usually compensated by a cash subsidy from the government and discounts on crude purchase from ONGC and OIL.• Government issues oil bonds to cover these losses for the OMC’s, but that has not been proved so good as they haven’t got SLR status from RBI yet which results in decreased liquidity of these bonds.
  • 15. Prevailing Problems in Petroleum Industry in India[7]• . The government oil marketing companies (OMCs) purchase crude oil at market rates but are required to sell diesel, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at government-set prices, resulting in losses.• These losses are usually compensated by a cash subsidy from the government and discounts on crude purchase from ONGC and OIL.• Government issues oil bonds to cover these losses for the OMC’s, but that has not been proved so good as they haven’t got SLR status from RBI yet which results in decreased liquidity of these bonds.
  • 16. Prevailing Problems in Petroleum Industry in India[7]
  • 17. Respective Share of Under- Recoveries[7]
  • 18. Under-Recoveries, Taxes and Oil Bonds[11]
  • 19. Price Deregulation• On June 25, 2010, the Empowered Group of Ministers (EGoM) has freed the price of petrol from the government’s control.• The price-setting policy affects earnings of Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) which are forced to sell fuel below the prevailing market rates.
  • 20. Issues we see…….• As of current status, there is no undre- recovery in petrol by recent price hike of Rs7.5/litre.• Where in Diesel, under-recovery of around Rs13.50/litre is there.• Diesel and Petrol are used for same purpose in many areas• This much subsidy on diesel is not at all justified
  • 21. Issues we see…….• As by current pricing system, a user is not charged with a maximum price which he/she is willing to pay• Many types of dynamic strategies that are used in E-Business can be implemented in petroleum sector.

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