NANO TECHNOLOGY

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NANO TECHNOLOGY- ITS ROLE IN CANCER DETECTION AND TREATMENT

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NANO TECHNOLOGY

  1. 1. ITS ROLE IN CANCER DETECTION AND TREATMENT Presented by :- ER. ANKUR PRAKASH SINGH NANOTECHNOLOGY
  2. 2. Topics • Introduction • History • Cancer detection and treatment using nanotechnological devices Cancer ▫ Causes of cancer • Applications of nanoparticles ▫ Nanoparticles are small enough to enter cells ▫ Nanodevices can improve cancer detection ▫ Nanoshells as cancer therapy ▫ Improving cancer treatment • Advantages Advantage of nanotechnology treatment • Disadvantages • Conclusion • Future of nanotechnology
  3. 3. Introduction  Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale.  Nanotechnology is the creation of useful materials, devices, and systems through the manipulation of matter on the nano- scale.
  4. 4. A nanometer is…  One billionth of a meter Nanoscale Human hair: approx. 1x105 nmDNA sample: approx. 2 nm
  5. 5.  The first ever concept was presented in 1959 by the famous professor of physics dr. Richard P.Feynman.  Invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1981 and the discovery of fullerene(c60) in 1985 lead to the emergence Of nanotechnology.  The term “nano-technology" had been coined by norio taniguchi in 1974 History
  6. 6. Cancer detection and treatment using nanotechnological devices
  7. 7. Cancer Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out-of- control cell growth. Cancer harms the body when damaged cells divide uncontrollably to form lumps or masses of tissue called tumors. Tumor in breast tumor in colon
  8. 8. Causes of cancer External factors – chemicals, radiation, viruses, and lifestyle Internal factors – hormones, immune conditions, and inherited mutations Cellular change
  9. 9. Applications of nanoparticles
  10. 10. Nanoparticles are Small enough to enter cells Cell White blood cell Water molecule Nanodevices Nanoparticles -Most animal cells are 10,000 to 20,000 nanometers in diameter.  Nanoscale devices (less than 100 nanometers) can enter cells and the organelles inside them to interact with dna and proteins. Tools developed through nanotechnology may be able to detect disease in a very small amount of cells or tissue. They may also be able to enter and monitor cells within a living body.
  11. 11. Nanodevices can improve cancer detection Detection of cancer at early stages is a critical step in improving cancer treatment. Currently, detection and diagnosis of cancer usually depend on changes in cells and tissues that are detected by a doctor’s physical touch or imaging expertise.
  12. 12. Nanoshells as cancer therapy Researchers can already link nanoshells to antibodies that recognize cancer cells. Scientists envision letting these nanoshells seek out their cancerous targets, then applying near-infrared light.  In laboratory cultures, the heat generated by the light- absorbing nanoshells has successfully killed tumor cells while leaving neighboring cells intact.
  13. 13. Improving cancer treatment Nanotechnology treatmentTraditional treatment Intact noncancerous cells Noncancerous cells Toxins Nanodevices Cancer Cells Dead noncancerous cells Noncancerous cells Drugs Dead Cancer Cells Dead Cancer Cells Toxins Cancer Cells
  14. 14. Advantages
  15. 15. Advantages of nanotechnology treatment  Nanoscale devices have the potential to radically change cancer therapy for the better and to dramatically increase the number of highly effective therapeutic agents Nanotechnology may also be useful for developing ways to eradicate cancer cells without harming healthy, neighboring cells.
  16. 16. Disadvantages
  17. 17. Disadvantages  Cancer targeting is highly dependent on surface chemistry. Not just any nanoparticle will work.  The need for biocompatible and stable nanoparticles  Side-effects and toxicity  Environmental impact  Uncharted territory
  18. 18. Conclusion  -Different types of cancer cells have unique properties that can be exploited by nanoparticles to target the cancer cells  -nanoparticles can be used to detect and to treat cancer (by heat ablation, chemotherapy, gene therapy).  -No human trials have been performed yet and human trials are still at least a few years away. (Unknown side effects, toxicity, difficulty in manufacturing and harmful byproducts, need for highly specific nanoparticles
  19. 19. Future of nanotechnology
  20. 20. References en.wikipedia.org http://www.nanotec.or.th http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics http://www.sciencedirect.com
  21. 21. Thank you!

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