MARKUP LANGUAGE CLASSIFICATION,
DESIGNING STATIC AND DYNAMIC PAGES
A markup language is a language that illustrates
text so that the computer can manipulate the
Most markup languages are human readable
because the illustrations are written in a way to
distinguish them from the text.
In HTML, XML, and XHTML, the markup tags
are enclosed between < and >.
this is a paragraph of text written in HTML
DIFFERENT MARKUP LANGUAGES
Following are the different markup languages:
HTML (HYPERTEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE)
HTML is a defined standard markup language.
HyperText Markup Language is the language of
the web. All web pages are written in HTML.
HTML defines the way that images, multimedia,
and text are displayed in web browsers.
XML (EXTENSIBLE MARKUP LANGUAGE)
XML is a language for writing markup
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup
language that defines a set of rules for encoding
documents in a format that is both human-
readable and machine-readable.
There are also several standardized languages
already created with XML: MathML for defining
mathematics, SMIL for working with
multimedia, XHTML, and many others.
XHTML stands for extended hypertext markup
language. XHTML 1.0 is HTML 4.0 redefined to meet
the XML standard.
XHTML is written in lower case. While HTML tags
can be written in UPPER case, MiXeD case, or lower
case, to be correct, XHTML tags must be all lower
All XHTML elements must have an end tag.
Elements with only one tag, such as HR and IMG
need a closing slash (/) at the end of the tag:
XHTML requires that tags are nested correctly. If you
open a bold (B) element and then an italics (I)
element, you must close the italics element (</i>)
before you close the bold (</b>).
DHTML stand for Dynamic Hypertext Markup
Dynamic HTML, or DHTML, is used to create
interactive and animated web sites by using a
combination of a static markup language (such as
HTML), a client-side scripting language (such as
DHTML allows scripting languages to change
variables in a web page's definition language,
which in turn affects the look and function of
page content, after the page has been fully loaded
and during the viewing process.
VoiceXML is used in Voice interaction between
humans and computer, mainly in systems that
enable you to, for example check your credit card
balance over the phone. The logive- like dialogue
management and speech recognition- is defined
A document markup language used mainly by
mathematicians, authors, etc to typeset their
content. It is suitable for representing
WHAT IS A STATIC WEBPAGE..??
A Static Webpage is a Webpage that is delivered to
user exactly as stored.
Static WebPages are HTML documents stored as files
in file system and made available by the web server
CREATING STATIC PAGES
HTML documents can be created using a
professional HTML editor like:
* Adobe Dreamweaver
* Microsoft Expression Web
* CoffeeCup HTML Editor
However, the most recommended and easily
available editor is Notepad.
STEPS TO CREATE A STATIC PAGE IN
Step I: Start Notepad
Start > All Programs > Accessories > Notepad
Step II: Edit your HTML with Notepad
STEPS TO CREATE A STATIC PAGE IN
Step III: Save your HTML
Select Save as… in Notepads File menu. You can use
either .htm or .html extension to save your document as
Step IV: Run the HTML in your Browser
HTML elements can have attributes.
Attributes provide additional information about
Attributes are always specified in the start tag.
Attributes come in name/value pairs
Headings are defined with the <h1> to
<h1> defines the most important heading,
<h6> defines the least important heading.
Browsers automatically add some empty space (a
margin) before and after each heading.
Paragraphs are defined with <p> tag.
A hyperlink (or link) is a word, group of words, or
image that you can click on to jump to a new
document or a new section within the current
Links are specified in HTML using the <a> tag.
<a href="url">Link text</a>
<a href=“www.facebook.com”>Go to
The <head> element is a container for all the
head elements. Elements inside <head> can
include scripts, instruct the browser where to
find style sheets, provide meta information, and
<title>, <base>, <link>, <meta>, <script>, and
<style> can be added to HTML Head
HTML <TITLE> TAG
The <title> tag defines the title of the document.
The <title> tag defines a title in the browser
Images are defined with the <img> tag.
The <img> tag has no closing tag.
To display an image on a page, you need to use the src
attribute. Src stands for "source". The value of the src
attribute is the URL of the image you want to display.
<img src="url" alt="some_text">
The required ‘alt’ attribute specifies an alternate text
for an image, if the image cannot be displayed.
<img src="batman.jpg" alt="Batman“
The height and width attributes are used to
specify the height and width of an image.
HTML STYLES - CSS
Cascading Style Sheets(CSS) is used to style
CSS can be added to HTML using the
style attribute in HTML elements.
is a paragraph.</p>
background-color Specifies the background color of HTML element
background-image Sets the background image for an element
opacity Sets the opacity level for an element
height Sets the height of an element
width Sets the width of an element
font-family Specifies the font family for text
font-size Specifies the font size for text
font-weight Specifies the font weight of a font
Color Sets the color of text
text-decoration Specifies the decoration added to text.
text-align Specifies the alignment of text.
Tables are defined with the <table> tag.
A table is divided into rows with the <tr> tag,
and each row is divided into data cells with the
A <td> tag can contain text, links, images, lists,
forms, other tables, etc.
HTML TABLE HEADERS
Header information in a table are defined with
the <th> tag.
HTML TABLE ATTRIBUTES
Border Specifies the size of table border (in pixels)
Width Specifies table width (in pixels)
Cell spacing Specifies the distance between two cells
Cell padding Specifies the space between cell content and table
Align Used to specify alignment of the table
HTML TEXT FORMATTING
HTML Text Formatting Tags
<b> Defines bold text
<big> Defines big text
<emp> Defines Emphasized text
<i> Defines italicised text
<small> Defines small text
<strong> Defines strong text
<sub> Defines subscripted text
<sup> Defines superscripted text
<ins> Defines inderted text
<del> Defines deleted text
The most common HTML lists are ordered and
An ordered list:
1. First List Item
2. Second List Item
3. Third List Item
An Unordered lost:
* List Item
* List Item
* List Item
HTML LAYOUTS - USING <DIV>
The <div> element is a block level
element used for grouping HTML
Multiple columns are created by using
CSS are used to position elements, or
to create backgrounds or colorful look
for the pages.
o Dynamic web pages are pages that are
generated at the time of access by a user or
change as a result of interaction with the user.
o For example, the page may change with the time
of day, the user that accesses the webpage, or the
type of user interaction.
Client side scripting
Scripts that are interpreted on client side i.e
browser of client.
Server side scripting
Scripts that run at server end and return the
HTML document as the output.
Example: asp, php
DRAWBACK OF STATIC PAGES
Difficult to maintain when a site gets large.
Difficult to keep consistent and up to date.
Offers little visitor personalization (all would
have to be client side)
USE OF DYNAMIC PAGES
Offers highly personalized and customized
Database access improves the personalized
experience (as opposed to using just client side
Scripts can read in data sources and display it
differently depending on how it is run.
Can create the illusion of being updated
regularly using time and date sensitive
routines (or even randomisers) to display pre-
Dynamic images means the images on a page
that are displayed on a web page at run time or
are changed at run time.
We can rotate pics, or zoom a pic on functions like
mouseover, mouseclick etc.
CASCADING STYLE SHEETS
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style
sheet language used for describing the
presentation semantics (the look and
formatting) of a document written in a
mark up language. Its most common
application is to style web pages written in
HTML and XHTML