Animal functions
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Animal functions Document Transcript

  • 1. Std :9th Sub: Science & Technology Chapter : 7 - Classification of AnimalsAnimal FunctionsThe study of animals is called zoology.Animals are different from plants in several important ways.  Animals move much more freely than plants and are not rooted in the soil.  Animals take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide.  Animals do not make their own food within themselves and therefore do not have chlorophyll.  Animal cells do not have a cell wall.  Animals eat plants, but plants do not eat animals generally..  Animals in general are more advanced in their structure than plants.Because animals are more complex or advanced than plants, they have differentsystems in their bodies to take care of the different jobs that allow them to liveand function. Below is a description of these systems and illustrations of organsof these systems in humans. These systems are: Muscular/Skeletal - The muscular/skeletal system of an animal refers to the systems that give the animal its shape, protects its organs and allows it to move. Animals bodies are protected in many ways. For some animals it is an outer skeleton or exoskeleton that protects their body. For others it is an inner or internal skeleton that protects the body. These skeletons give the animal bodies their shapes. An animals form or body can be arranged to have  Asymmetry - No specific form  Radial Symmetry - There is a center to the animals body from which limbs or arms come out from as if from a circle, much like the spokes on a bicycle wheel.
  • 2.  Bilateral Symmetry - This means that an animal has two sides that are almost exactly the same on each side. Thus if you drew a line down the middle of the animals body, one side would be a mirror image of the other side.Reproduction - This is how an animal makesmore of itself or has babies. Animals canreproduce several ways.  Fission - Splitting in half.  Budding - Growing buds that break off to form new animals  Sexually - This is where a male and female member of a species mates to reproduce a new animal baby.Excretion - This is how an animal gets rid ofwastes after it uses energy to do its work. Inhumans kidneys and skin do this job.Digestion - This is how an animal breaksdown the food it takes into its body. Inhumans the mouth, stomach and intestinesare part of the digestive system.
  • 3. Respiration - This is how an animal takes in oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide as it uses energy. In humans the nose, throat and lungs would be part of the respiratory system Circulation - This allows food and energy to be distributed throughout the animals body. In humans the heart, blood and blood vessels are part of the circulatory system. Nervous - This is how an animal takes in information from the world and uses that information to react to the world and to go about its life. This would include the animals senses, its brain and nervous system.All of these systems influence where an animal lives and how it survives. Ananimal that needs to live in water would not survive long on land and vice versa.Depending on how advanced these systems are in animals determines the groupthey belong in as well as how alike the systems are between and among theanimals. 2) Animal ClassificationAnimals are classified in a variety of ways. This helps scientists to study therelationships in animal groups and to see the whole animal family tree as it hasdeveloped through time. The study of animal classification is called taxonomy.The basic unit of an animal is the cell. A cell is the smallest unit of any animal orplant. Some animals are one celled, some consist of millions of cells. Each cell isfilled with a living matter called protoplasm. It also has a nucleus that is thecenter of the cell and directs its activities. The cytoplasm is the area outside of
  • 4. the nucleus. Each cell is held together by a cell membrane which is like a verythin skin for the cell. Many cells have different jobs to do in an animal, whetherthey be bone, blood, skin cells.A group of the same kinds of cells are called tissues. A group of tissues that worktogether to do a job in the animals body is an organ. The stomach, heart,kidneys, lungs are examples of organs. A group of organs that do a number ofjobs of the same kind are systems.Animals are grouped together or classified in a variety of ways. Some of themare:Whether an animals in one celled or many celled.How an animals bodily systems differ.Animal groupings are similar to plants. The groupings are:  Kingdom - There are two basic kingdoms, the plant and animal kingdoms. There is a third with animals that bridge the plant and animal kingdom.  Phylum - Within the plant and animal kingdoms are big groupings called phylum or phyla. Animals are grouped into phyla that have broad similar characteristics.  Classes - These are a finer division of a phyla.  Orders - These are divisions of classes.  Families - These are divisions of  Genera - These are the divisions of families.  Species - These are the divisions of genera3)The protozoa are one-celled animals and the smallest of all animals. Most of themcan only be seen under a microscope. They do breathe, move, and reproduce likemulticelled animals. They live in water or at least where it is damp. Animals in thisgroup include the paramecium, the euglena and the ameba.
  • 5. Some protozoans are harmful to man as they can cause serious diseases. Othersare helpful because they eat harmful bacteria and are food for fish and otheranimals.Below is a link to a description of three types of protozoa.  Ameba  Paramecium  Euglena  Protozoa Videos System Type Protozoas System A protozoa has no inner or outer skeleton. They move a variety of ways. The ameba has a false foot Muscular- that extends as it moves. The paramecium is Skeletal covered with hairs and the euglena has a whip-like tail to move. A protozoa takes in food via the water and stores Digestion the food in sacs called vacuoles. They eat tiny algae and bacteria. A protozoa has a very low level reaction to the Nervous world around it and does not have a brain per se. They can react to light and temperature changes. A protozoa has water flow in through the pores. Circulation The water contains the food and oxygen the protozoa needs. A protozoa takes in oxygen through the cell Respiration membrane and gives off carbon dioxide through the cell membrane. A protozoa reproduces by splitting in half. This is Reproduction called fission. A protozoa has sacs called vacuoles that take in Excretion and get rid of water.
  • 6. Symmetry A protozoa is usually asymmetrical. A protozoa is very microscopic and is pale in color Coloration generally.4) A crinoid on an orange sponge A barrel sponge from the from the Bioinfo Animal Pictures Archive Bioinfo Animal Pictures ArchiveThere are about 5,000 species of sponges found throughout the world. Mostsponges are found in oceans, although some groups are found in fresh waterssuch as lakes. They were the first group of animals that has specialized cells todo special jobs. However, the cells are not so advanced as to form tissues.Sponges live singly or in colonies.Many sponges give off a toxic or poisonous substance. This is used to fight offenemies and poison them. However, some of the substances given off are used
  • 7. by humans as medicines. The skeleton of the sponge is used by man for spongesas well.Some sponges appear green because algae clings to them. The algae provideoxygen for the sponge and the sponge provides carbon dioxide for the algae.When two living things live off of one another, it is called symbiosis.Here is how a sponges systems are organized System Type Sponges System Muscular- A sponge is a hollow tube with many pores or Skeletal openings. The skeleton is made of lime or silicon. A sponge takes in food via the water that flows Digestion through the pores. A sponge has a very low level reaction to the world Nervous around it and does not have a brain per se. A sponge has water flow in through the pores. The Circulation water contains the food and oxygen the sponge needs. A sponge takes in water through its pores and in more advanced forms, with canals that move the Respiration water to all throughout the sponge. Then the oxygen from the water is used. A sponge reproduces by budding and also Reproduction sexually. A sponge has carbon dioxide and other wastes Excretion removed as the water moves in and out through the pores. A sponge has either radial symmetry or is Symmetry asymmetrical. A sponge is white, red, orange, green, yellow, Coloration brown, purple, black
  • 8. CoelenteratesCorals belong to a group or phylum that includes hydras, jellyfish, and seaanemones called coelenerates. They are frequently symbiotic. This means that itand another living thing live off of each other without one harming the other.Coelenterates live in the sea. They give off poisonous toxins to protectthemselves from predators. System Type Coelenterate System A coelenterate has an outer skeleton, if it has one. It moves by Muscular- waving its body and tentacles. The body basically consists of Skeletal two layers with a jellylike middle. A coelenterate has a mouth opening surrounded by tentacles. It Digestion eats animals and plants. It leads to a stomach cavity or area where food is digested. A coelenterate has no brain but has a simple nervous system Nervous called a nerve net. Some have a very primitive sense of taste/smell. A coelenterate has a gastrovascular system. This means that Circulation the digestive and circulatory system are meshed in the coelenterates body. Respiration A coelenterate breathes through its body surface.
  • 9. A coelenterate reproduces by budding or sexually. In budding, the coelenterate grows a tiny body part that sprouts and then Reproduction breaks off. It can also be male or female or a hermaphrodite, meaning it has the sex organs of male and female. Excretion A coelenterate passes wastes out through its mouth. Symmetry A coelenterate has radial symmetry. Appearance A coelenterate can be reddish, white, green Flatworms Phylum PlatyhelminthFlatworms are the simplest of the worm groups. There are about 20,000 speciesin this group. They are found many places and can be free living or parasitic. Aparasite lives off of another living thing called a host and can be harmful. One ofthe best known flatworms is the tapeworm. The tapeworm can get into a personsdigestive tract and grow to enormous lengths. The tapeworm then eats off thehost and is dangerous to the host as it grows and consumes more of the hostand its food.Flatworms are found in marine and fresh water.
  • 10. System Type Flatworms System A flatworm has no skeleton. It has tiny bristles called cilia that help it move as well as two layers of muscles under itsMuscular- skin. It has three cell layers called the endoderm, theSkeletal mesoderm and the ectoderm. They also have the beginnings of a head region. A flatworm has a combination digestive/excretory system.Digestion It takes food in and gets rid of wastes through the same opening. A flatworm has a very simple nervous system with two nerve cords running down either side. It has two simpleNervous brains called ganglia, which are simple bundles of nerves. . It has two eyespots that help it sense light. A flatworm has a gastrovascular cavity with one opening. ItCirculation eats small worms, insects and microscopic matter. A flatworm takes in oxygen, but has no formal respiratoryRespiration system. A flatworm reproduces by splitting in two. When aReproduction flatworm is split up it immediately forms a new flatworm. A flatworm gets rid of wastes through the same opening itExcretion takes in food.Symmetry A flatworm has bilateral symmetry. A flatworm can be microscopic or many feet long and isAppearance generally very thin.
  • 11. Roundworms Phylum NematodaRoundworms are a member of the nemathelminths phylum or group of animals.The hookworm, pinworm and trichinella are part of this group. They are moreadvanced than flatworms but less advanced than earthworms. They have thinround bodies, with none of the pieces or segments that earthworms have in theirbodies.Roundworms live in salt water, fresh water and the soil. Many of them are harmfulto man as they are parasites. System Type Roundworms System Muscular- A roundworm has no skeleton. Skeletal A roundworm has a definite digestive system that runs the Digestion length of their bodies. It has a mouth, pharynx, intestine and anus. Many are parasites and live off other animals and plants. A roundworm has two nerve cords that transmit impulses in the Nervous roundworm. Circulation A roundworm has no heart or formal blood vessels. Respiration A roundworm has no formal respiratory system. Reproduction A roundworm reproduces sexually. The female has an ovary, holds eggs in an oviduct and then passes them to the uterus,
  • 12. where they are fertilized. The male has sperm cells are made in the testis and stored in the vas deferens. When it is time to reproduce, the sperm cells pass through the spicule. Over 200,000 eggs can be deposited at once in the soil once they are fertilized. A roundworm has an anus at its rear end and a series of Excretion excretory tubes that end in an excretory pore. Symmetry A roundworm has bilateral symmetry. A roundworm is thin, round, smooth and can be up to four feet Appearance in length Earthworms Phylum AnnelidaEarthworms are the most highly developed worms. They are divided intosegments or parts. They are found in salt and fresh water as well as in the soil.Earthworms are helpful to man as bait for fishing and more importantly, becausethey loosen the soil for roots to grow.There are 2700 species of earthworms. Earthworms have many enemies includinganimals that eat them and man who uses them.
  • 13. System Type Earthworms System A earthworm does not have a skeleton. It has bristles on each segment called setae that help the earthworm move.Muscular-Skeletal Earthworms have no limbs. The earthworm has two sets of muscles; one that makes it long and thin and one that makes it fat. A earthworm has a digestive system. It eats dirt, digesting the plant and animal matter in the dirt and then eliminates the rest. It has an esophagus for the food to go down, aDigestion crop to store the food in, a gizzard that grinds the food down, intestines for the food to pass through and take out nutrients and an anus for the food to come out. A earthworm has a nervous system with a simple brainNervous and nerve cord. A earthworm has blood and blood vessels with multiple (5)Circulation hearts. Click here for earthworm heartbeat movie: Earthworm heartbeat movie A earthworm has no respiratory organ. It takes in oxygenRespiration directly through its skin and gives off carbon dioxide. Its skin is always moist. A earthworm has both sperm and eggs within its body and reproduces sexually. However, the eggs must be fertilized by the sperm of another worm. An earthworm lays a batchReproduction of eggs at one time. They do not spend time raising their young once they are hatched. Click here to see a movie of an earthworm giving birth. Earthworm Birth A earthworms wastes help to fertilize the soil. It gets rid ofExcretion its wastes through tubes called nephridin that lead to pores that allow the wastes out.Symmetry A earthworm has bilateral symmetry. A earthworm is generally earthtones such as brown, tan,Coloration etc.. It can be up to eight feet in length!
  • 14. Insects are part of a bigger animal group called arthropods. The word Arthropodliterally means jointed limbs. The arthropods are the first animal group to havejointed legs.Insects have certain characteristics. They have six legs. They have three bodyparts, a head, a thorax and an abdomen. They have wings. They are by far thelargest animal group. They also have an outer or exoskeleton made of asubstance called chitin..There are over 700, 000 species of insects. While they are relatively small in sizecompared to many animal groups, they are well adapted to their environments.Most insects live on land.All insects grow from eggs. They go through various stages until they reachadulthood. This transformation through these stages is called metamorphosis.Insects undergo either complete or incomplete metamorphosis.The dragonfly, termite, grasshopper and true bug undergo incompletemetamorphosis. In this process there are three stages called egg, nymph andadult. When the nymph hatches from the egg, it looks like the adult insect exceptit is smaller, has no wings and cannot reproduce yet. As the nymph grows itoutgrows its outside skeleton and it is shed. It then regrows a new one. Thishappens several times before it finally becomes an adult.Insects like the butterfly, bee, ant, beetle and fly undergo completemetamorphosis. This involves four stages: egg, larvae, pupae and adult. Thelarvae looks like a worm and hatches from the egg. As it grows, it also sheds itskin. It then grows into a pupa. While the pupa doesnt move around like thelarva, it does eventually at this stage change from an immature form to adultform.There is another group within the arthropods called the arachnids. The arachnidsare spiders, scorpions, etc. The annelids are similar to insects. However, theyhave eight legs. Their wings are quite different from those of the insects.Since this group is so very big, there are links below to pages on some of thebiggest groups within the arthropods:
  • 15.  Grasshoppers Dragonflies Beetles Bugs Aphids Butterflies Flies Bees Ants Spiders Crustaceans (Crayfish, lobsters, crabs and shrimp) System Type Insects System A insect has an outer skeleton. The skeleton has three layers: the outer It has three pairs of legs and one or two pairs of Muscular- wings. The legs are segmented and Skeletal depending on the insect, may have a clawlike structure on the last segment. Insect muscles are connected to their outside skeleton and are generally gray. A insect has different kinds of mouths depending on the species. Some can chew, some can suck objects. The digestive Digestion system is a tube that goes from the mouth to the anus. It is divided into several sections, the foregut, the midgut and the hindgut. A insect has antennae that can be used to detect odors or to touch objects. Insects have two sets of eyes: simple eyes and Nervous compound eyes. The simple eyes have cornea, retina, pigment cells, etc.. There is a brain and nerve cells. A insect has a circulatory system that Circulation carries food, but not oxygen throughout its body. Since it does not carry oxygen, insect
  • 16. blood is green, not red like mammal blood. The insect heart is a simple tube running along their backs. A insect breathes through thoracic and abdominal spiracles. Since the insect has Respiration no lungs, the spiracles go throughout the insect body to give gases. Thus the insect bodies are relatively small. A insect generally reproduces sexually, although not always. The female genitals are external or outside the body. The eggs Reproduction are held in an ovipositor. The females internal sexual organs are ovaries and the males are testes that produce sperm. A insect passes food through its digestive Excretion system and the insect feces pass out of its anus from the hindgut. Symmetry A insect has bilateral symmetry. The insect is generally relatively small. It Appearance can be many different colors depending on the species Phylum MolluscaA mollusk is another name for a shellfish. There are three groupings of shellfish. They include:  Hatchet-footed - These live inside of two shells that are connected by a muscular hinge which can open and close the shell. They are referred to as bivalves. Lines on the shell tell how old the mollusk is as the shell gets bigger, the older the shellfish gets. Clams, scallops, oysters and mussels are bivalves.  Belly-footed - These have just one spiral shell and carry their shells on their backs. They are called univalves. The snail, slug, periwinkle and conch belong to this group.  Head-footed - These have a definite head surrounded by tentacles. The squid and octopus are two in this group.
  • 17. Shellfish are not all fish and many of them live on land. Not all of them haveshells. They are not fish, although many of them live in the water. System Type Mollusks System A Mollusk has an outer shell. It has a soft Muscular-Skeletal body. It has a muscular foot that it uses for movement. A Mollusk has food brought in through a siphon system and then to its mouth. It then Digestion goes to a digestive gland and to its intestine. Wastes leave via the anus. A Mollusk has no formal nervous system, Nervous but has a series of ganglia that conduct impulses. A Mollusk has a heart, blood and blood Circulation vessels. A Mollusk has tubes called siphons that Respiration bring water in and out of their bodies so that they can get oxygen and give off
  • 18. carbon dioxide. They have gills that help with this. A Mollusk is either male or female and Reproduction reproduces sexually with a large organ called a gonad. A Mollusk has an excretory system with an Excretion anus. It has an organ called the nephridium that gets rid of wastes. Symmetry A Mollusk has bilateral symmetry. A Mollusk has a soft, thick, fleshy body. It Appearance can be very small or as big as six feet across Phylum Echinoderm Starfish belong to a group or phylum of animals called echinoderms. This means"spiny skinned" in Greek. Echinoderms live in salt water only. They generallyhave five arms and dwell at the bottom of oceans levels. There are around 6000species of echinoderms. The starfish, sea urchin, sea cucumber and sand dollarare some good examples.
  • 19. System Type Echinoderm SystemMuscular- A Echinoderm has an inner skeleton. It travels by meansSkeletal of many tube feet. A Echinoderm has a mouth and stomach area. Some have a mouth on the bottom and an anus on the top.StarfishDigestion can actually turn their stomachs outside of their body and insert it into its preys such as a clam. Echinoderms have a relatively big gut area. A Echinoderm has eyespots which can detect light. TheirNervous eyespots are not as sharp as human eyes. It generally has a poorly developed nervous system. A Echinoderm has water pumped through its body as partCirculation of its very simple circulation system. A Echinoderm uses some of the bumps or spines on itsRespiration surface to take in oxygen. It has a gill structure to take in the oxygen. It has a poorly developed respiratory system. A Echinoderm is a male or female. The males and females discharge their eggs and sperm into the water where they are fertilized. A female can release one hundred millionReproduction eggs at once. If a piece of certain echinoderms is chopped off, a new piece or even a new echinoderm can regrow.Excretion A Echinoderm has a simple excretory system.Symmetry A Echinoderm has radial symmetry. A Echinoderm has five arms and spines or bumps all overAppearance its body. The spines are protective and also help with respiration.
  • 20. Chordates are animals with backbones. Animal groups in the chordate phyluminclude fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.Animals with backbones are the most highly evolved groups of animals, the mostcomplex and complicated. They have interior skeletons and have bilateralsymmetry. They have more advanced brains. System Type Chordates System An chordate has an inner skeleton with a backbone. It Muscular- generally has four appendages that are in the forms of Skeletal legs, arms, wings or fins. An chordate takes in food through the mouth. The chordate has a mouth with a tongue. Some have teeth and Digestion some do not. It has a digestive system with stomach, intestines. Chordates eat plants and animals. An chordate has a brain and nervous system. Most chordates have two eyes and at least a minimal system of hearing as fish do underwater. Many have excellent Nervous hearing. Some chordates are literally blind as the bat, but most have good vision. The chordates have the most developed brains of all the phyla and complex nervous systems. A chordate is warm or cold blooded, depending on the Circulation class of chordate. A chordate takes in oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide Respiration through lungs or gills. Reproduction A chordate reproduces sexually. A chordate has complex skin that is many times covered Excretion with either feathers, scales or hair. They get rid of wastes through kidneys and intestines. Symmetry A chordate has bilateral symmetry. Coloration A chordate can be almost any color in nature.
  • 21. The fish are the class of chordates that live completely in water. Their bodieshave three main parts; the head, the trunk of the body and the tail. Their bodiesare covered in scales and also a protective slime. They are important as a foodsource for animals. System Type Fish System A fish eats algae and plants and/or animals. Those that Digestion eat animals have teeth. A fish has an inner skeleton. It has two sets of fins, the pectoral fins that are near the head and the pelvic fins that are further down the body. Along the top of the trunk Muscular/Skeletal are the dorsal fins and fins towards the back or rear of the fish called anal fins. The dorsal and anal fins are for balance and the others for movement. A fish has a brain and a nervous system. Its eyes are positioned on either side of its body and are quite large, with no eyelid. Their retinas have both rods and cones. They have large pupils that let in a great deal of light. They have an inner ear but no outer ear opening. Since their bodies are the same consistency as water. Sound Nervous in water travels four times as fast as in the air. The fish also has a lateral line system just under the skin of its head and the top of its body that helps it detect motion and therefore prey. Fish have a nasal sac that helps them smell. Some fish produce a low voltage electrical current that keeps prey away. A fish is cold blooded. It has a heart, blood and blood Circulation vessels. A fish breathes through gills located on either side of the Respiration head. The gills are made up of tiny threadlike filaments. When the fish opens its mouth, water rushes in and the oxygen is pulled out through the blood vessels in these
  • 22. filaments. They also have an air bladder that allows them to rise or sink as it inflates or deflates. A fish reproduces sexually. The female lays eggs outside her body and then a male comes along and sprays a liquid called milt which has many sperm cells. The eggsReproduction are then fertilized. The eggs contain yolk that feeds the young fish in the egg and some stays on to feed the fish after it hatches. A few fish carry their eggs in their bodies until birth.Excretion A fish gets rid of wastes through its anus.Symmetry A fish has bilateral symmetry. A fish is usually darker colored on top and lighter on the bottom to protect it from enemies. It is streamlined so that it can move through water rapidly. Fish can changeAppearance their color rapidly with color and reflective cells in their skin pigmentation.Fish can range in size from less than an inch to sixteen feet.
  • 23. .Amphibians are one of the classes of chordates. The word amphibian means bothsides of life. This is because the amphibian begins its life in the water and thenfinishes it mainly on land. The change of an animal in its appearance from baby toadult is called metamorphosis. An amphibian goes through metamorphosis as itgrows from a baby to an adult.The amphibian, because it must be moist, sometimes hides out in the summer asif hibernating. This is called estivation. It also buries itself in the mud during thewinter and hibernates to prevent it from freezing as it is cold blooded.Common amphibians include frogs, toads and salamanders. They are, on thewhole, quite small vertebrates.
  • 24. System Type Amphibians System An amphibian has an inner skeleton with a backbone. It hasMuscular- webbed feet, but no claws. They have attached limbs at theSkeletal shoulders and hips. With the frog and toad, the front legs are shorter and weaker and the rear legs much stronger for leaping. An amphibian takes in food through the mouth. The frog has aDigestion long tongue that it whips out and grabs insects with. It has a digestive system with stomach, intestines. An amphibian has a brain and nervous system. It has two eyes,Nervous with a third extra protective eyelid for when it is on land. A amphibian is cold blooded so its body temperature is the sameCirculation as its surrounding environment. A amphibian takes in oxygen through the skin. It then goesRespiration through the bloodstream directly. On land the amphibian uses lungs. A amphibian reproduces sexually. The eggs are fertilized outside of the mothers body. The mother lays the eggs which are in aReproduction jellylike layer. The father immediately comes by and fertilizes them. The frogs eggs are black and white. The young frog is called a tadpole and it hangs on to plants.Excretion A amphibian has a thin skin that is moist.Symmetry A amphibian has bilateral symmetry.Coloration A amphibian is green, yellow, brown
  • 25. Reptiles are a class of the chordate phylum. They have scaly skin and feet withclaws on their toes. Both the babies and the adults breathe through lungs. Theyhave a breastbone called a sternum to protect the heart and lungs. The femaleseggs are fertilized in her body by the male. The eggs are laid in a shell that has aleathery covering to protect it in the wilds. The common reptiles are snakes,turtles, lizards alligators and crocodiles.Click on the links below to get more information about specific reptiles:  Snakes  Lizards  Turtles  Alligators and CrocodilesClick on the picture below to see the movie. System Type Reptiles System A reptile has an inner skeleton. It has a breast boneMuscular-Skeletal to protect the lungs and heart. The reptiles have feet with claws.
  • 26. A reptile has a mouth, tongue, teeth, an esophagus,Digestion stomach and rectum. A reptile has a brain and nervous system. It has eyes,Nervous can sense sound.Circulation A reptile has a heart A reptile breathes through a trachea and lungs,Respiration including the baby reptiles. A reptile reproduces sexually with the females eggs being fertilized by the male internally. The eggs,Reproduction which have a leathery surface, are then carefully deposited. A reptile is cold blooded. It is covered with scales. ItExcretion has kidneys and ureters to get rid of liquid wastes. Snakes can molt or shed their skin.Symmetry A reptile has bilateral symmetry. A reptile varies in size from very small snakes, lizards and turtles up to huge alligators andAppearance crocodiles. Their coloration varies, but it frequently allows the reptile to blend in with its environmentBirds are a class of the chordates or vertebrate phylum. They are similar to otherchordates in that they have a backbone. They are unique in the fact that they arecovered with feathers and fly. There are four types of feathers for birds:  Down Feathers - These keep both young and old birds warm. They are soft.  Filoplumes - These are thin and hairlike with tufts on the end.  Contour Feathers - These cover and protect the body and give the bird its color. The color of these feathers can depend on whether the bird is the male or female of the species.  Quill Feathers - These large, strong feathers are in the wings and tail and help the bird with flying.There are about 9000 species of birds, with 24 orders and 146 families. Scientistsbelieve that birds evolved from reptiles and dinosaurs.
  • 27. Birds are found throughout the world, from the tropics to polar regions. Oneunique characteristic of many birds is their tendency to migrate. This means thatthe birds move from colder to warmer areas as the winter approaches.Birds can be both helpful and harmful to man. They are helpful as they frequentlyeat harmful insects. They provide food for man. They are pets and can be verydecorative. They are harmful when they eat crops and kill animals.The study of birds is ornithology.  Passeriformes (Perching Birds- larks, swallows, shrikes, wrens, thrushes, warblers, blackbirds, tits, finches, weavers, sparrows, starlings, birds of paradise, crows)  Picaforms (Woodpeckers, toucans)  Anseriformes (Ducks, swans, geese, screamers)  Falconiformes (Eagles, falcons, buzzards, hawks, kites)  Strigiformes (Owls)  Columbiformes (Doves, pigeons)  Speniciformes (Penguins)  Psittaciformes (Parrots, parakeets, macaws)  Galliformes (Turkeys, grouse, pheasants) System Type Birds System A bird has an internal skeleton with two pairs of limbs attached to the main body with two legs and two wings. Their bones are full of Muscular- holes and are very light to allow them to fly. Skeletal Their bodies are also streamlined for flight. They have a wide range of feet, depending on where they live and what they eat. A bird eats a great deal. They mainly eat insects and seeds, although some eat fruits and other animals. They take in water through their beaks and tip their heads back to Digestion swallow. Beaks are in a variety of sizes and shapes, depending on the birds diet. A bird has a mouth, esophagus, stomach, crop, gizzard,intestines, liver and pancreas. A bird has relatively large eyes that allow it to judge distance well and an excellent sense of Nervous hearing. Their tongues are used to feel things. They have beautiful voices. They have a brain
  • 28. and spinal cord. A bird is warm-blooded. The bird has an excellent heart that pumps vigorously to allow Circulation energy to get to all parts of the birds body for flight. A bird has lungs to breathe with as well as a Respiration trachea and nostrils. A bird reproduces sexually when a male bird places sperm in the female so that the females eggs are fertilized in her body. The bird lays eggs that have a protective shell. Reproduction Sometimes the male helps the female warm the eggs. Baby birds require care and therefore the birds build nests for them to live and hatch in. A bird has skin covered with feathers. They lose their feathers or molt once a year. New feathers grow back to replace the old ones. Excretion The bird has kidneys and a ureter to excrete liquid wastes and intestines and a rectum for solid wastes. Symmetry A bird has bilateral symmetry. A bird ranges in size from around two inches to seven feet. Birds can be many colors. Appearance Frequently the male is more colorful and the female is drabMammals are a class in the chordate phylum. Mammals are like other chordatesin that they have backbones. Mammals have several distinct characteristics.  They have hair on their bodies.  They nurse their young.  They have live birth rather than laying eggs,
  • 29. There are several major groups of mammals. Below is a list of these groups andtheir links on this site:  Egg Laying Mammals  Flying Mammals  Toothless Mammals  Pouched Mammals  Flesh-eating Mammals  Insect Eating Mammals  Gnawing Mammals (Rodents)  Hoofed Mammals (Ungulates)  Trunk Nosed Mammals  Marine Mammals  Flexibly Fingered Mammals (Primates) System Type Mammals System A mammal has an inner skeleton. It has Muscular-Skeletal developed muscles and generally have four limbs attached. A mammal has a developed digestive tract with mouth, teeth, stomach, intestines. Digestion Herbivores eat plants, carnivores eat meat and omnivores eat both. A mammal has a highly developed brain, Nervous nerves and sensory organs such as eyes, nose, mouth, ears and touch. A mammal has a four chambered heart, Circulation blood vessels and blood within their system. A mammal has lungs and breathes in Respiration oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide. Reproduction A mammal reproduces sexually with the female being fertilized by the male
  • 30. internally. Mammals have live birth and care for their young for quite a time after birth. A mammal gas kidneys and is covered withExcretion skin. The skin has hair. Mammals are warm blooded.Symmetry A mammal has bilateral symmetry. A mammal can be various shades of brown,Coloration black, tan, white.