Packaging-outer – Fair & Lovely Packaging inserts – Motion pictures – Castrol – Tara Rum Pum Posters – Airtel Express Yourself Directories – Yellow Pages Billboards – Levi’s Display Signs – Bangalore – Follow Traffic Point of Purchase – Duracell Audiovisual material - www.vishakhawe.org Symbols and logos – Various symbols and logos of companies
Reposition the brand:- Pepsi or Cadbury have continuously repositioned its brand over years Remind the customers to use the brand:- Odonil Room freshners. Inform regular consumers of new uses:- Monaco biscuits as snacks.
High market-share brands usually require less advertising expenditure as a percent-of-sales to maintain share. Large number of competitors require high advertising spending The frequency of advertising depends to a large extent on product categories (complex products requires more number of advertisements) and consumer memory (number of repetitions required to create brand awareness). Product substitutability requires because of undifferentiated products requires heavy advertising to create image.
Chapter 18 - Managing Mass Communications and Personal Communications
Paid, nonpersonal communication through
various media by business firms, not-for-
profit organizations, and individuals who
are identified in the advertising message
and who hope to inform or persuade
members of a particular audience.
Advertising - Platforms
Print and Broadcast ads – TV & Radio
Packaging – outer
Brochures and booklets
Posters and leaflets
Directories – yellow pages
Symbols and logos
Developing and managing and
Setting the advertising objective
Advertising alone does not sell the product.
It affects and is affected by the product, the price, the
packaging, the distribution, and other elements of
Effective advertising campaigns are developed as part
of an overall marketing strategy and are tightly
coordinated with the other facets of the promotional
Nature of advertising
Primary-demand advertising or Pioneering
Used to increase demand for all brands of a product
in a specific industry
Nature of advertising
Selective-demand (brand) advertising
Used to sell a particular brand of product
To persuade customers to buy the product
within a short time or stimulate immediate
To keep the firm’s name fresh in the public’s
mind and stimulate sales in long-term.
Nature of advertising
Compares specific characteristics of two or more
brands to show the advertiser’s brand is better (e.g.
Hindu – TOI, Pepsi – Coke)
Designed to enhance a firm’s image or build its
reputation (e.g. Shining B-Schools of India,
Corporate Videos, CSR Initiative)
For Mature Products
Increase the number of buyers
Convert the buyers of competing brands
Appeal to new market segments
Reposition the brand (e.g. Hero Maestro)
Increase the rate of usage among current users
Remind the customers to use the brand
Inform regular consumers of new uses (e.g. Idea paper ad, Cadbury)
Enhance brand loyalty and reduce switching among the current users
(e.g. Micromax response to Samsung)
For New products
Introduce a new product, pre-launch and launch promotional campaigns
(e.g. Google Chrome ad)
Setting the advertising budget
Deciding on the Advertising Budget
Five factors to consider when setting the advertising budget:
Stage in the product life cycle
Market share and consumer base
Competition and clutter
In advertising, the generation of ideas and development of the
advertising message or concept make up the creative process.
Advertising copy writers, art directors, and other creative people are
responsible for the task of answering two questions:
What to say – appeal
How to say it – execution of the appeal
What is said
How it is said
What to say – the appeal
Advertising appeal:- The central idea of an
advertising message – rational appeal,
emotional (humor, sex, fear etc) or moral
Advertising theme:- When same
advertising appeal is used in several
different advertisements to provide
continuity in an advertising campaign.
How to say it – execution of the
How to say something is as important as – and
sometimes more important than – what to say.
The person delivering the message, the emotional tone,
and the situation in which the action takes place all
influence the effectiveness of the advertisement.
Creative platform:- How an advertisement says
Determining how to communicate the message is
interrelated with selecting advertising media.
The major creative platforms include – storyline, product
use and problem solution, slice of life, demonstration,
testimonial and spokesperson, lifestyle, still life,
Storyline:- Gives a history or tells a story about the
Product use or problem solving:- Straightforward
discussion of a product’s uses, attributes, benefits, or
Slice of life:- Dramatizes a ‘typical” setting wherein people
use the product being advertised.
Demonstration:- Product superiority or consumer benefits
is presented e.g. infomercial
Testimonials:- A person, usually a well-known or public
figure, states that he or she owns, uses or supports the
product being advertised.
Still life:- Makes the product or package its focal point,
emphasizing a visually attractive presentation and the
product’s brand name.
Association:- Uses analogy or other relationship to
stimulate interest and convey information.
Montage:- Blends a number of situations, demonstrations,
and other visual effects into one commercial to emphasize
the array of possibilities associated with the product
Jingle:- A song or other short verse used in an
advertisement as a memory aid.
Other creative platforms:- Animation, computer graphics
Factors that influence media selection (assuming that
budget considerations are set aside) are
Visual appeal – TV
Lengthy explanation – print media and internet
If consumers require a message to remind them –
outdoor bill boards
Type of product e.g. healthcare
Social responsibility review – Law and regulations to
govern advertising. Alcoholic beverages, cigarettes,
Evaluating among alternative media
Reach/audience (R):- The number of people exposed to the
Effective audience:- The number of people within the target
audience exposed to the vehicle
Effective ad-exposed audience (RE):- The number of people
with target audience characteristics who actually saw the
Frequency (F):- Number of times within a specified time
period that an average person is exposed to the message.
Impact (I):- Qualitative value of an exposure through a given
Total number of exposures:- E = R * F
Media selection – what
Macroscheduling – Involves scheduling
the advertising in relation to seasons and
the business cycle.
Microscheduling – Allocating advertising
expenditure within a short period of time
Developing messages and pretest
Measuring recognition and recall e.g. recall tests
both aided and unaided recall test such as
telephone survey conducted during the 24-hour
period following the airing of the television
commercial to measure day-after recall.
Measuring changes in attitude about a product
Measuring inquiries about the product