Chapter 18 - Managing Mass Communications and Personal Communications


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  • Packaging-outer – Fair & Lovely
    Packaging inserts –
    Motion pictures – Castrol – Tara Rum Pum
    Posters – Airtel Express Yourself
    Directories – Yellow Pages
    Billboards – Levi’s
    Display Signs – Bangalore – Follow Traffic
    Point of Purchase – Duracell
    Audiovisual material -
    Symbols and logos – Various symbols and logos of companies
  • Reposition the brand:- Pepsi or Cadbury have continuously repositioned its brand over years
    Remind the customers to use the brand:- Odonil Room freshners.
    Inform regular consumers of new uses:- Monaco biscuits as snacks.
  • High market-share brands usually require less advertising expenditure as a percent-of-sales to maintain share.
    Large number of competitors require high advertising spending
    The frequency of advertising depends to a large extent on product categories (complex products requires more number of advertisements) and consumer memory (number of repetitions required to create brand awareness).
    Product substitutability requires because of undifferentiated products requires heavy advertising to create image.
  • Chapter 18 - Managing Mass Communications and Personal Communications

    1. 1. Advertising  Paid, nonpersonal communication through various media by business firms, not-for- profit organizations, and individuals who are identified in the advertising message and who hope to inform or persuade members of a particular audience.
    2. 2. Advertising - Platforms  Print and Broadcast ads – TV & Radio  Packaging – outer  Packaging inserts  Motion pictures  Brochures and booklets  Posters and leaflets  Directories – yellow pages  Billboards  Display signs  Point-of-purchase displays  Audio-visual material  Symbols and logos
    3. 3. Developing and managing and advertising program
    4. 4. Setting the advertising objective  Advertising alone does not sell the product.  It affects and is affected by the product, the price, the packaging, the distribution, and other elements of promotion.  Effective advertising campaigns are developed as part of an overall marketing strategy and are tightly coordinated with the other facets of the promotional mix.
    5. 5. Nature of advertising  Primary-demand advertising or Pioneering advertising  Used to increase demand for all brands of a product in a specific industry
    6. 6. Pioneering Advertisement
    7. 7. Nature of advertising  Selective-demand (brand) advertising  Used to sell a particular brand of product Direct-action advertisement To persuade customers to buy the product within a short time or stimulate immediate purchase Indirect-action advertising To keep the firm’s name fresh in the public’s mind and stimulate sales in long-term.
    8. 8. Direct Action Advertisement
    9. 9. Direct Action Advertisement
    10. 10. Indirect Action Advertisement
    11. 11. Nature of advertising  Comparative advertising  Compares specific characteristics of two or more brands to show the advertiser’s brand is better (e.g. Hindu – TOI, Pepsi – Coke)  Institutional advertising  Designed to enhance a firm’s image or build its reputation (e.g. Shining B-Schools of India, Corporate Videos, CSR Initiative)
    12. 12. Advertising objectives  For Mature Products  Increase the number of buyers  Convert the buyers of competing brands  Appeal to new market segments  Reposition the brand (e.g. Hero Maestro)  Increase the rate of usage among current users  Remind the customers to use the brand  Inform regular consumers of new uses (e.g. Idea paper ad, Cadbury)  Enhance brand loyalty and reduce switching among the current users (e.g. Micromax response to Samsung)  For New products  Introduce a new product, pre-launch and launch promotional campaigns (e.g. Google Chrome ad)
    13. 13. Setting the advertising budget  Deciding on the Advertising Budget  Five factors to consider when setting the advertising budget:  Stage in the product life cycle  Market share and consumer base  Competition and clutter  Advertising frequency  Product substitutability
    14. 14. Creating Strategy  In advertising, the generation of ideas and development of the advertising message or concept make up the creative process.  Advertising copy writers, art directors, and other creative people are responsible for the task of answering two questions:  What to say – appeal  How to say it – execution of the appeal Advertising Objective Advertising Execution: What is said How it is said The Creative Spark
    15. 15. What to say – the appeal  Advertising appeal:- The central idea of an advertising message – rational appeal, emotional (humor, sex, fear etc) or moral appeal.  Advertising theme:- When same advertising appeal is used in several different advertisements to provide continuity in an advertising campaign.
    16. 16. How to say it – execution of the appeal  How to say something is as important as – and sometimes more important than – what to say.  The person delivering the message, the emotional tone, and the situation in which the action takes place all influence the effectiveness of the advertisement.  Creative platform:- How an advertisement says something.  Determining how to communicate the message is interrelated with selecting advertising media.  The major creative platforms include – storyline, product use and problem solution, slice of life, demonstration, testimonial and spokesperson, lifestyle, still life,
    17. 17. Creative platforms  Storyline:- Gives a history or tells a story about the product.  Product use or problem solving:- Straightforward discussion of a product’s uses, attributes, benefits, or availability.  Slice of life:- Dramatizes a ‘typical” setting wherein people use the product being advertised.  Demonstration:- Product superiority or consumer benefits is presented e.g. infomercial  Testimonials:- A person, usually a well-known or public figure, states that he or she owns, uses or supports the product being advertised.
    18. 18. Creative platforms  Still life:- Makes the product or package its focal point, emphasizing a visually attractive presentation and the product’s brand name.  Association:- Uses analogy or other relationship to stimulate interest and convey information.  Montage:- Blends a number of situations, demonstrations, and other visual effects into one commercial to emphasize the array of possibilities associated with the product usage.  Jingle:- A song or other short verse used in an advertisement as a memory aid.  Other creative platforms:- Animation, computer graphics
    19. 19. Media selection  Factors that influence media selection (assuming that budget considerations are set aside) are  Visual appeal – TV  Lengthy explanation – print media and internet  If consumers require a message to remind them – outdoor bill boards  Type of product e.g. healthcare  Consumer profile/demographics  Social responsibility review – Law and regulations to govern advertising. Alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, pharmaceutical products.
    20. 20. Media selection  Evaluating among alternative media  Reach/audience (R):- The number of people exposed to the vehicle  Effective audience:- The number of people within the target audience exposed to the vehicle  Effective ad-exposed audience (RE):- The number of people with target audience characteristics who actually saw the advertisement  Frequency (F):- Number of times within a specified time period that an average person is exposed to the message.  Impact (I):- Qualitative value of an exposure through a given medium.  Total number of exposures:- E = R * F
    21. 21. Media selection – what scheduling  Macroscheduling – Involves scheduling the advertising in relation to seasons and the business cycle.  Microscheduling – Allocating advertising expenditure within a short period of time  Continuous  Concentrated  Flighting  Pulsing
    22. 22. Measuring effectiveness  Developing messages and pretest advertisements.  Post-testing advertisements  Measuring recognition and recall e.g. recall tests both aided and unaided recall test such as telephone survey conducted during the 24-hour period following the airing of the television commercial to measure day-after recall.  Measuring changes in attitude about a product  Measuring inquiries about the product