Hybrid Vehicles GROUP MEMBERS: 310. Ankit B. Tanna 317. Ankur S. Bhadra 328. Bhargav M. Iyer 354. Jaydeepsingh H. Rajpal
Introduction A Hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle. The term most commonly refers to Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) which combines an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors.
In 1997 , the first modern hybrid electric car, the Toyota Prius, was sold in Japan. Two years later, the United States saw its first sale of a hybrid, the Honda Insight. The Honda Civic Hybrid, marked a radical change . Hybrids can play a significant role in solving major problems faced by the world, Climate change Air pollution Oil dependence.
Why Hybrids ? Regenerative braking . Fuel efficiency is greatly increased (twice). Emissions are greatly decreased. Dependency on fossils fuels can be decreased. Hybrids can be run on alternative fuels as well. New materials can be implemented.
What Lies Within Hybrid Car Gasoline Engine Fuel Tank Electric Motor Generator Batteries
Power Sources ForHybrid Vehicles On-board or out-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) Gasoline or Diesel fuel Hydrogen Compressed air Liquid nitrogen Human powered e.g. pedaling or rowing
Electricity Compressed or liquefied natural gas Solar Waste heat from internal combustion engine. This can be converted to steam or electricity (eg. via Stirling engine or Thermo generator) to increase vehicle propulsion. Coal, wood, Biochar or other solid combustibles Electromagnetic fields, Radio waves
Construction Of Hybrid Cars
How Do Hybrid Vehicles Help Environment? The two types of hybrids: Electric hybrids: Electric hybrids use the electric motor as their alternative energy source. Hydrogen hybrids: Hydrogen hybrids extract the element from water and add the hydrogen to the fuel-air mixture of the vehicle.
Emissions of harmful gases are very less. The fuel economy are achieved is through stop/start technology that is fitted to the vehicle. Emissions of carbon dioxide are very less. Regenerative braking systems allow the energy that is normally wasted during the braking of the vehicle to be captured and stored so that it can be reused. It produce less noise pollution. The oil fuels and gasoline consumption is less.
Energy & Environmental Performance The best way to evaluate the environmental performance of a hybrid electric vehicle is to measure its fuel economy and emissions under realistic driving conditions. FUEL ECONOMY: Engine efficiency can be improved significantly. The clear trend is that the closer a vehicle is to a full function battery electric vehicle, the better its fuel economy. Hybrids’ fuel economy are over and above those that can be achieved with advanced conventional vehicles.
TAILPIPE EMISSIONS: In general, hybrids will have some emission advantages over conventional vehicles and some added emission challenges. While hybrids can meet the world’s most stringent nonzero tailpipe emissions standard, the federal Tier 2-Bin 2 or California’s SULEV standard, several conventional cars can do the same today.
Emissions By Hybrids The Hybrid Vehicles the are being used are of LEV type.
Advantages Of HybridVehicles Lower emissions and better mileage. Hybrids perform at par with the normal gasoline-powered vehicles, if not better. Hybrids are reliable and comfortable. There are purchase incentives for Hybrid vehicle owners (varies by state).
Hybrids are much cleaner cars than normal vehicles. The future for hybrids looks bright with rapid developments in hybrid technology to improve engine efficiency. Due to the Regenerative Braking technology, the batteries need not be charged by an external source. Special warranties are provided for the battery pack, the electric motor other costly items. Hybrids help reduce the dependency on fossil fuels which directly affects fuel prices.
Disadvantages Of Hybrid Vehicles High Cost: Hybrids cost anywhere from $2,000 to $5,000 more their non-Hybrid versions. More weight due to battery packs. Some states charge additional fees for registration. In the event of an unfortunate accident, there is a risk of exposure to high voltage wires.
Complicated Architecture. Spare parts maybe hard to find and may be costly. Hybrids have a lower acceleration . Some batteries fail deliver in cold weather. Not suitable for long distance journey.
Facts About Hybrid Vehicles High Average, comparatively 1/3rd of the Gas. No plug-in required. Recharged While Driving. Lower Emissions. Car of the Future. Incentives for Hybrid Users. Expensive but Warranted.
Preferred by ALL. Very Quiet. Use Batteries not Fuel. Speed a bit lower. 80,000 Cars Sold. Plan to work on Fuel Cells.
Tomorrow’s Hybrid Good Pick up, full-size SUV’s, luxury cars to be built. Purchase approximately 350,000 Hybrid vehicles annually by the year 2009.
Working For High Performance But they have a high cost.
Conclusion Still the hybrids might be in the cradle locks but as the Technology increases gradually “The Hybrids” would be replacing “The Conventionals “in order to be fuel efficient and act as a Helping Hand to the Environment. Although Costly in the market but having a long term vision for the hybrids is profound to hit the causes of helping Fuel Draught that might occur in the near future.