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Nov’07 DC Power Principles
<ul><ul><li>Why DC Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Power System – Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Output Curren...
Types of Power Systems DC OUTPUT DC/DC   CONVERTER AC INPUT POWER SUPPLY OR RECTIFIER   BATTERY CHARGER Battery UPS INVERT...
<ul><li>Provide reliable DC Power for Telecom Equip. </li></ul>No.  1 2 3 4 5 Battery DC OUTPUT AC INPUT ~ = <ul><li>Most ...
<ul><li>Provide equipment power when AC is absent </li></ul>No.  1 2 3 4 5 <ul><li>When the AC supply (mains) is absent, D...
<ul><li>Charge the Batteries </li></ul>No.  1 2 3 4 5 <ul><li>When the AC supply (mains) is restored, the batteries must b...
<ul><li>Filter out noise and protect from surges </li></ul>No.  1 2 3 4 5 <ul><li>A DC supply will act as a line filter th...
<ul><li>Monitor and Control the power </li></ul>No.  1 2 3 4 5 Battery DC OUTPUT AC INPUT ~ = <ul><li>Equipment operators ...
In summary <ul><li>The reasons for a DC Power System are  : </li></ul><ul><li>Convert AC power to DC for telecom equipment...
DC Power System Principles <ul><ul><li>Why DC Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Power System – Overview </li></ul></ul><...
DC Power System - Components G DIESEL GENERATOR AC input Typically AC Mains between 110 – 480V, however other sources of s...
DC Power System - Components G OVP MAINS FUSES DIESEL GENERATOR Input protection Can be provided by either; in-line fuses,...
Rectifier #1 Rectifier  #2 Rectifier #n G OVP MAINS FUSES REDUNDANT RECTIFIER SYSTEM AC/DC DIESEL GENERATOR Rectifier  #n ...
ALARM MODULE Rectifier #1 Rectifier  #2 Rectifier #n G OVP MAINS FUSES REDUNDANT RECTIFIER SYSTEM AC/DC DIESEL GENERATOR R...
ALARM MODULE Rectifier #1 Rectifier  #2 Rectifier #n G OVP MAINS FUSES BATTERY BANK REDUNDANT RECTIFIER SYSTEM AC/DC DIESE...
ALARM MODULE Rectifier #1 Rectifier  #2 Rectifier #n G OVP MAINS FUSES LVBD BATTERY BANK REDUNDANT RECTIFIER SYSTEM AC/DC ...
ALARM MODULE Rectifier #1 Rectifier  #2 Rectifier #n G OVP MAINS FUSES LVBD BATTERY BANK REDUNDANT RECTIFIER SYSTEM AC/DC ...
ALARM MODULE Rectifier #1 Rectifier  #2 Rectifier #n G OVP MAINS FUSES BATTERY DISTRIBUTION BATTERY BANK REDUNDANT RECTIFI...
NONE PRIORITY LOAD LOAD (pc’s or different voltage) ALARM MODULE Rectifier #1 Rectifier  #2 Rectifier #n G OVP MAINS FUSES...
Load Any equipment connected to the output of the DC system.  NONE PRIORITY LOAD LOAD (pc’s or different voltage) ALARM MO...
<ul><ul><li>Why DC Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Power System – Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Output Curren...
Eltek Power System Battery Bank DC OUTPUT AC INPUT DC Power System – Current Flow AC Input OK AC Input Outage AC Input res...
Eltek Power System Battery Bank DC OUTPUT AC INPUT DC Power System – Current Flow AC Input OK AC Input Outage AC Input res...
Eltek Power System Battery Bank DC OUTPUT AC INPUT DC Power System – Current Flow AC Input OK AC Input Outage AC Input res...
<ul><ul><li>Why DC Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Power System – Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Output Curren...
<ul><li>W = I x V </li></ul><ul><li>I = W / V </li></ul><ul><li>V = W / I </li></ul>Terminology – Power Triangle Current (...
Terminology – Output Characteristics Constant Power  : if the voltage is varied, the current value will be conversely adju...
Terminology - Abbreviations PR   : Power Rack; a shelf where rectifiers are inserted. MCB : Miniature Circuit Breaker BB :...
<ul><ul><li>Why DC Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Power System – Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Output Curren...
NONE PRIORITY LOAD Rectifier #1 Rectifier  #2 Rectifier #n LVBD BATTERY BANK Rectifier  #n PRIORITY LOAD BATTERY BANK ALAR...
System in normal operation Provisioning - Redundancy 100A Battery Charging Capacity approx 150A, thus “N + 1” Load 100A
System has no redundancy Increased recharge time Provisioning - Redundancy Load 100A Can the batteries charge ? 100A Capac...
System has no redundancy and reduced standby time Provisioning - Redundancy 10A Load 100A Discharging the batteries 100A C...
Provisioning – Battery Breakers 800Ah Battery bank Capacity approx 150A Load 100A LVBD What is the most suitable rating of...
Provisioning – Earthing Types Clean Earth CABINET Exchange Link CABINET
End of Presentation Let’s us know if you found this presentation useful or would like more information. Eltek values your ...
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Dc Principal

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Transcript of "Dc Principal"

  1. 1. Nov’07 DC Power Principles
  2. 2. <ul><ul><li>Why DC Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Power System – Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Output Current flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provisioning considerations </li></ul></ul>DC Power System Principles
  3. 3. Types of Power Systems DC OUTPUT DC/DC CONVERTER AC INPUT POWER SUPPLY OR RECTIFIER BATTERY CHARGER Battery UPS INVERTER ~ = DC OUTPUT DC INPUT = = AC OUTPUT DC INPUT = ~ DC OUTPUT AC INPUT ~ = AC OUTPUT Battery DC AC INPUT ~ = = ~
  4. 4. <ul><li>Provide reliable DC Power for Telecom Equip. </li></ul>No. 1 2 3 4 5 Battery DC OUTPUT AC INPUT ~ = <ul><li>Most telecom equipment is designed to operate with DC input voltage. </li></ul>Why choose DC Power ?
  5. 5. <ul><li>Provide equipment power when AC is absent </li></ul>No. 1 2 3 4 5 <ul><li>When the AC supply (mains) is absent, DC supply must come from a stored energy source. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, DC batteries are the cheapest and most efficient way to store electrical energy. </li></ul>Battery DC OUTPUT AC INPUT ~ = Why choose DC Power ?
  6. 6. <ul><li>Charge the Batteries </li></ul>No. 1 2 3 4 5 <ul><li>When the AC supply (mains) is restored, the batteries must be recharged. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, DC batteries can only be charged by DC Power. </li></ul>Battery DC OUTPUT AC INPUT ~ = Why choose DC Power ?
  7. 7. <ul><li>Filter out noise and protect from surges </li></ul>No. 1 2 3 4 5 <ul><li>A DC supply will act as a line filter thus shielding the telecom equipment from AC system and phase noise. </li></ul><ul><li>A DC supply can also be configured with Over Voltage Protection to prevent high voltage surges from damaging the telecom equipment </li></ul>Battery DC OUTPUT AC INPUT ~ = Why choose DC Power ? ~ ~ ~
  8. 8. <ul><li>Monitor and Control the power </li></ul>No. 1 2 3 4 5 Battery DC OUTPUT AC INPUT ~ = <ul><li>Equipment operators can configure and control what power is being supplied to the various telecom equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Alarming is also provided to monitor the power system’s operation </li></ul>Why choose DC Power ?
  9. 9. In summary <ul><li>The reasons for a DC Power System are : </li></ul><ul><li>Convert AC power to DC for telecom equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Provide power when AC is absent. </li></ul><ul><li>Charge the batteries when mains is restored. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide filtering and surge protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide monitoring and control of power. </li></ul>
  10. 10. DC Power System Principles <ul><ul><li>Why DC Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Power System – Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Output Current flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provisioning considerations </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. DC Power System - Components G DIESEL GENERATOR AC input Typically AC Mains between 110 – 480V, however other sources of supply can include generators, UPS etc. AC Input
  12. 12. DC Power System - Components G OVP MAINS FUSES DIESEL GENERATOR Input protection Can be provided by either; in-line fuses, Over Voltage Protection or other such devices. AC Input
  13. 13. Rectifier #1 Rectifier #2 Rectifier #n G OVP MAINS FUSES REDUNDANT RECTIFIER SYSTEM AC/DC DIESEL GENERATOR Rectifier #n Rectifier A Power supply which converts Alternating Current to Direct Current; typical output below 60V. AC Input DC Power System - Components
  14. 14. ALARM MODULE Rectifier #1 Rectifier #2 Rectifier #n G OVP MAINS FUSES REDUNDANT RECTIFIER SYSTEM AC/DC DIESEL GENERATOR Rectifier #n Monitor & Control Unit (Alarm module) Monitors the system and generates alarms if an event occurs outside of normal operation. AC Input DC Power System - Components
  15. 15. ALARM MODULE Rectifier #1 Rectifier #2 Rectifier #n G OVP MAINS FUSES BATTERY BANK REDUNDANT RECTIFIER SYSTEM AC/DC DIESEL GENERATOR Rectifier #n BATTERY BANK Battery Bank / String A battery bank is 1 or more battery strings. A battery string is a number of batteries connected in series to provide the required operating voltage AC Input DC Power System - Components
  16. 16. ALARM MODULE Rectifier #1 Rectifier #2 Rectifier #n G OVP MAINS FUSES LVBD BATTERY BANK REDUNDANT RECTIFIER SYSTEM AC/DC DIESEL GENERATOR Rectifier #n BATTERY BANK Low Voltage Battery Disconnect To prevent deep discharging of the batteries. Operated by the MCU when a user-configured low battery voltage point is reached. AC Input DC Power System - Components
  17. 17. ALARM MODULE Rectifier #1 Rectifier #2 Rectifier #n G OVP MAINS FUSES LVBD BATTERY BANK REDUNDANT RECTIFIER SYSTEM AC/DC DIESEL GENERATOR Rectifier #n LVLD BATTERY BANK Low Voltage Load Disconnect Reduces the drain on the batteries by non-priority loads. Operated by the MCU when a user-configured low battery voltage point is reached. AC Input DC Power System - Components
  18. 18. ALARM MODULE Rectifier #1 Rectifier #2 Rectifier #n G OVP MAINS FUSES BATTERY DISTRIBUTION BATTERY BANK REDUNDANT RECTIFIER SYSTEM AC/DC DIESEL GENERATOR Rectifier #n LVLD BATTERY BANK Distribution System hardware for distributing the DC power to the load. Hardware can include; battery breakers, MCB or blade fuses. AC Input DC Power System - Components LVBD
  19. 19. NONE PRIORITY LOAD LOAD (pc’s or different voltage) ALARM MODULE Rectifier #1 Rectifier #2 Rectifier #n G OVP MAINS FUSES BATTERY DISTRIBUTION BATTERY BANK DC-DC or DC/AC REDUNDANT RECTIFIER SYSTEM AC/DC DIESEL GENERATOR Rectifier #n LVLD PRIORITY LOAD BATTERY BANK Load Any equipment connected to the distribution of the DC system. AC Input DC Power System - Components LVBD
  20. 20. Load Any equipment connected to the output of the DC system. NONE PRIORITY LOAD LOAD (pc’s or different voltage) ALARM MODULE Rectifier #1 Rectifier #2 Rectifier #n G OVP MAINS FUSES LVBD BATTERY DISTRIBUTION BATTERY BANK DC-DC or DC/AC REDUNDANT RECTIFIER SYSTEM AC/DC DIESEL GENERATOR Rectifier #n LVLD PRIORITY LOAD BATTERY BANK BATTERY CHARGER Battery DC OUTPUT AC INPUT ~ = AC Input DC Power System - Overview
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>Why DC Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Power System – Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Output Current flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provisioning considerations </li></ul></ul>DC Power System Principles
  22. 22. Eltek Power System Battery Bank DC OUTPUT AC INPUT DC Power System – Current Flow AC Input OK AC Input Outage AC Input restored <ul><li>Load supplied by DC Power System </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage is at Float Voltage to maintain the charge on the batteries. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Eltek Power System Battery Bank DC OUTPUT AC INPUT DC Power System – Current Flow AC Input OK AC Input Outage AC Input restored <ul><li>Load supplied by Battery Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Small amount of current to System for alarm and monitoring devices. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Eltek Power System Battery Bank DC OUTPUT AC INPUT DC Power System – Current Flow AC Input OK AC Input Outage AC Input restored <ul><li>Load supplied by DC Power System </li></ul><ul><li>Batteies recharged by DC Power System. Initially maximum allowable/available current supplied, then reduces as battery charge level increases. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>Why DC Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Power System – Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Output Current flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provisioning considerations </li></ul></ul>DC Power System Principles
  26. 26. <ul><li>W = I x V </li></ul><ul><li>I = W / V </li></ul><ul><li>V = W / I </li></ul>Terminology – Power Triangle Current (I) Power (W) Voltage (V)
  27. 27. Terminology – Output Characteristics Constant Power : if the voltage is varied, the current value will be conversely adjusted to maintain a constant power output. Constant Current : If the voltage is varied, the power output will be corresponding adjusted to maintain a constant current output. Constant Voltage : If the current is varied, the power output will be corresponding adjusted to maintain a constant voltage output.
  28. 28. Terminology - Abbreviations PR : Power Rack; a shelf where rectifiers are inserted. MCB : Miniature Circuit Breaker BB : Battery Breaker MTBF : Mean Time Before Failure; Calculated value of the probability of failure rates
  29. 29. <ul><ul><li>Why DC Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Power System – Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC Output Current flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provisioning considerations </li></ul></ul>DC Power System Principles
  30. 30. NONE PRIORITY LOAD Rectifier #1 Rectifier #2 Rectifier #n LVBD BATTERY BANK Rectifier #n PRIORITY LOAD BATTERY BANK ALARM MODULE MAINS FUSES BATTERY DISTRIBUTION LVLD AC Input Provisioning : 6 Key Questions 1. System Voltage ? (+24/-48/-60/other) Rectifier #1 Rectifier #2 Rectifier #n Rectifier #n 3. No. of Outputs ? NONE PRIORITY LOAD PRIORITY LOAD 2. Max Load ? BATTERY BANK BATTERY BANK 5. Back-up Time ? Rectifier #1 Rectifier #2 Rectifier #n Rectifier #n 4. Rectifier Recharge time / Redundancy ? LVBD 6. End Voltage ?
  31. 31. System in normal operation Provisioning - Redundancy 100A Battery Charging Capacity approx 150A, thus “N + 1” Load 100A
  32. 32. System has no redundancy Increased recharge time Provisioning - Redundancy Load 100A Can the batteries charge ? 100A Capacity approx 120A ?
  33. 33. System has no redundancy and reduced standby time Provisioning - Redundancy 10A Load 100A Discharging the batteries 100A Capacity approx 90A
  34. 34. Provisioning – Battery Breakers 800Ah Battery bank Capacity approx 150A Load 100A LVBD What is the most suitable rating of the BB ? Too small and it will trip during normal operation; but too big and you waste money ? Charging : 150A – 100A = 50 A max Discharging : 100A load max Thus 150A will suit, though 125A is possible if nec.
  35. 35. Provisioning – Earthing Types Clean Earth CABINET Exchange Link CABINET
  36. 36. End of Presentation Let’s us know if you found this presentation useful or would like more information. Eltek values your feedback. Thank you
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