15 POPULATION, HEALTH, AND COMMUNITIES
Chapter Outline <ul><li>Demography: The Study of Population </li></ul><ul><li>World Population Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>...
Demography: The Study of Population <ul><li>Malthus’s Thesis and Marx’s Response </li></ul><ul><li>Malthus proposed that t...
Demography: The Study of Population <ul><li>Malthus’s Thesis and Marx’s Response </li></ul><ul><li>Marx argued that the na...
Demography: The Study of Population <ul><li>Studying Population Today </li></ul><ul><li>The census is the primary mechanis...
Demography: The Study of Population <ul><li>Elements of Demography </li></ul><ul><li>Death Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Th...
Demography: The Study of Population <ul><li>Elements of Demography </li></ul><ul><li>Life Expectancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
World Population Patterns <ul><li>Demographic Transition </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic transition is the change from high ...
World Population Patterns <ul><li>The Population Explosion </li></ul><ul><li>Many developing nations have experienced  low...
World Population Patterns Figure 15.1: Demographic Transition
World Population Patterns World Population, 2001
World Population Patterns Percent Change, 1990 to 2000 Total Population Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001.  Mapping ...
World Population Patterns Table 15.1: Estimated Time for Each Successive Increase of 1 Billion People in World Population
World Population Patterns Figure 15.2: Population Structure of Afghanistan, 2000
World Population Patterns Figure 15.2b: Population Structure of the United States, 2000
Fertility Patterns in the United States <ul><li>The Baby Boom </li></ul><ul><li>The baby boom was not a return to large fa...
Fertility Patterns in the United States <ul><li>Stable Population Growth </li></ul><ul><li>The fertility rate of the U.S. ...
Sociological Perspectives on Health and Illness <ul><li>Functionalist Approach </li></ul><ul><li>“ Being sick” must be con...
Sociological Perspectives on Health and Illness <ul><li>Conflict Approach </li></ul><ul><li>This approach is critical of t...
Sociological Perspectives on Health and Illness <ul><li>Interactionist Approach </li></ul><ul><li>This approach studies th...
Sociological Perspectives on Health and Illness <ul><li>Labeling Approach </li></ul><ul><li>The designations  healthy   an...
Culture and Health Figure 15.3: Average Life Expectancy at Birth
Culture and Health Figure 15.4: Infant Mortality Rates, 2001
Social Epidemiology and Health <ul><li>Social Epidemiology and Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Social epidemiology  is the...
Social Epidemiology and Health <ul><li>Social Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Studies have shown that people in the lower c...
Social Epidemiology and Health <ul><li>Race and Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Health profiles of racial and ethnic gr...
Social Epidemiology and Health <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>When compared with men, women live longer, but as a group ...
Social Epidemiology and Health <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Most older people in the United States have at least one chro...
Social Epidemiology and Health Life Expectancy at Birth, Age 65, and Age 80 by Sex and Race: 1998 Source: U.S. Bureau of t...
Social Epidemiology and Health Mapping Life Worldwide: Infant Mortality Rates Worldwide Source: John H. Allen. 1999.  Stud...
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Chapter15a

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Chapter15a

  1. 2. 15 POPULATION, HEALTH, AND COMMUNITIES
  2. 3. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Demography: The Study of Population </li></ul><ul><li>World Population Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Fertility Patterns in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Sociological Perspectives on Health and Illness </li></ul><ul><li>Social Epidemiology and Health </li></ul><ul><li>How Did Communities Originate? </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Social Policy: World Population Policy </li></ul>
  3. 4. Demography: The Study of Population <ul><li>Malthus’s Thesis and Marx’s Response </li></ul><ul><li>Malthus proposed that the world’s population was growing more rapidly than the available food supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Malthus held that food supply increases in an arithmetic progression, whereas population expands by a geometric progression. </li></ul><ul><li>Malthus advocated population control. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Demography: The Study of Population <ul><li>Malthus’s Thesis and Marx’s Response </li></ul><ul><li>Marx argued that the nature of the economy (capitalism) in Europe was the central problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Marx felt that if society were well ordered, increases should lead to greater wealth, not hunger and misery. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Demography: The Study of Population <ul><li>Studying Population Today </li></ul><ul><li>The census is the primary mechanism for collecting population information. </li></ul><ul><li>Census figures are supplemented by vital statistics , or records of births, deaths, marriages, and divorces. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Demography: The Study of Population <ul><li>Elements of Demography </li></ul><ul><li>Death Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--The number of deaths per 1,000 population in a given year. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infant Mortality Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--The number of deaths of infants under one year of age per 1,000 live births in a given year. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Demography: The Study of Population <ul><li>Elements of Demography </li></ul><ul><li>Life Expectancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--The median number of years a person can be expected to live under current mortality conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growth Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--The difference between birth and deaths, plus the difference between immigrants and emigrants. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. World Population Patterns <ul><li>Demographic Transition </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic transition is the change from high birthrates and death rates to relatively low birth rates and death rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic transition is typically viewed as a three-stage process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretransition stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posttransition stage </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. World Population Patterns <ul><li>The Population Explosion </li></ul><ul><li>Many developing nations have experienced lower rates of increase in their population growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Family planning appears to have been instrumental in this change. </li></ul>
  10. 11. World Population Patterns Figure 15.1: Demographic Transition
  11. 12. World Population Patterns World Population, 2001
  12. 13. World Population Patterns Percent Change, 1990 to 2000 Total Population Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. Mapping Census 2000: The Geography of U.S. Diversity . Series CENSR/01-1, p. 10. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Also accessible at http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/dt_atlas.html.
  13. 14. World Population Patterns Table 15.1: Estimated Time for Each Successive Increase of 1 Billion People in World Population
  14. 15. World Population Patterns Figure 15.2: Population Structure of Afghanistan, 2000
  15. 16. World Population Patterns Figure 15.2b: Population Structure of the United States, 2000
  16. 17. Fertility Patterns in the United States <ul><li>The Baby Boom </li></ul><ul><li>The baby boom was not a return to large families, but rather was a decrease in the number of childless marriages and one-child families. </li></ul><ul><li>The baby boom represents the most recent period of high fertility in the United States. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Fertility Patterns in the United States <ul><li>Stable Population Growth </li></ul><ul><li>The fertility rate of the U.S. has remained low over the last two decades. </li></ul><ul><li>We are still experiencing population growth due to two factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the momentum built into our age structure by the postwar population boom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>continued high rates of immigration </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Sociological Perspectives on Health and Illness <ul><li>Functionalist Approach </li></ul><ul><li>“ Being sick” must be controlled so that not too many people are released from their societal responsibilities at any one time. </li></ul><ul><li>The sick role refers to the societal expectations about the attitudes and behavior of a person viewed as being ill. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Sociological Perspectives on Health and Illness <ul><li>Conflict Approach </li></ul><ul><li>This approach is critical of the growing role of medicine as a major institution of social control. </li></ul><ul><li>This approach argues that medicine is a regulating mechanism and manifests social control by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expanding its domain of expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>retaining jurisdiction over many health care procedures </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Sociological Perspectives on Health and Illness <ul><li>Interactionist Approach </li></ul><ul><li>This approach studies the roles played by health care professionals and patients. </li></ul><ul><li>This approach asserts that patients may play an active role in the positive or negative outcomes of their health. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Sociological Perspectives on Health and Illness <ul><li>Labeling Approach </li></ul><ul><li>The designations healthy and ill generally involve social definition by others. </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreements continue in the medical community over whether a variety of life experiences are illnesses or not. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Culture and Health Figure 15.3: Average Life Expectancy at Birth
  23. 24. Culture and Health Figure 15.4: Infant Mortality Rates, 2001
  24. 25. Social Epidemiology and Health <ul><li>Social Epidemiology and Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Social epidemiology is the study of the distribution of disease, impairment, and general health status across a population. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Incidence refers to the number of new cases of a specific disorder occurring within a given population during a stated period of time, usually a year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Prevalence refers to the total number of cases of a specific disorder that exist at a given time. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Social Epidemiology and Health <ul><li>Social Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Studies have shown that people in the lower classes have higher rates of mortality and disability. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class is linked to health by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>living conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>occupation </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Social Epidemiology and Health <ul><li>Race and Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Health profiles of racial and ethnic groups reflect the social inequality evident in the United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poor economic and environmental conditions are manifested in high morbidity and mortality rates for these groups. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Social Epidemiology and Health <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>When compared with men, women live longer, but as a group appear to be in poorer health than men. </li></ul><ul><li>Women live longer due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lower rate of cigarette smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lower consumption of alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lower rates of employment in certain occupations </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Social Epidemiology and Health <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Most older people in the United States have at least one chronic illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Older people are vulnerable to certain types of mental health problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Older people use more health services than younger people. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Social Epidemiology and Health Life Expectancy at Birth, Age 65, and Age 80 by Sex and Race: 1998 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. Statistical Abstract of the United States 2001 . Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Table 98 on p. 74. Also accessible at http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/01statab/stat-ab01.html. 80.1 74.8 19.3 17.4 74.5 62.6 16.1 14.3 9.1 8.7 7.5 7.1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 At birth At age 65 At age 80 At birth At age 65 At age 80 Women Men Years of life White Black
  30. 31. Social Epidemiology and Health Mapping Life Worldwide: Infant Mortality Rates Worldwide Source: John H. Allen. 1999. Student Atlas of World Geography . New York: Duskin/McGraw-Hill, map 22 on p. 40. Infant Mortality Deaths of children under 1 yr of age per 1,000 live births 10 or less 11 - 30 31 - 90 91 - 150 More than 150 No data
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