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  • 1.  
  • 3. Chapter Outline
    • Durkheim and the Sociological Approach to Religion
    • World Religions
    • The Role of Religion
    • Religious Behavior
    • Religious Organization
    • Sociological Perspectives on Education
    • Schools as Formal Organizations
    • Social Policy and Religion: Religion in the Schools
  • 4. Durkheim and the Sociological Approach to Religion
    • Durkheim and the Sociological Approach
    • Emile Durkheim was the first sociologist to recognize the critical importance of religion in human societies.
    • Durkheim stressed the social impact of religion.
    • Durkheim viewed religion as a collective act; religion includes many forms of behavior in which people interact with others.
  • 5. Durkheim and the Sociological Approach to Religion
    • Durkheim and the Sociological Approach
    • Durkheim defined religion as a “unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things.”
    • Religious faiths distinguish between events that transcend the ordinary and the everyday world:
    • The sacred includes elements that inspire awe, respect, and fear. People become a part of the sacred by completing some ritual.
    • The profane includes the ordinary and commonplace.
  • 6. World Religions
    • Diversity in World Religions
    • 87 percent of the world’s population adheres to some religion
    • Christianity is the largest single faith, the second largest is Islam
    • Christianity, Islam, and Judaism are monotheistic religions
    • Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism developed in India. Buddhism is now primarily found in Asia.
    • Although the differences among religions are striking, they are exceeded by variations within faiths.
  • 7. World Religions Figure 13.1: Religions of the World
  • 8. World Religions Table 13.1: Major World Religions
  • 9. World Religions Figure 13.2: Belief in God Worldwide
  • 10. World Religions Figure 13.3: Predominant Christian Faiths by Counties of the United States, 1990
  • 11. The Role of Religion
    • Functions of Religion
    • Manifest functions: Manifest functions are open and stated. Religion defines the spiritual world and gives meaning to the divine. Religion also provides an explanation for events that are difficult to understand.
    • Latent functions: The latent functions of religion (unintended, covert, or hidden) might include providing a meeting ground for unmarried members.
  • 12. The Role of Religion
    • The Integrative Function of Religion
    • Religion offers people meaning and purpose for their lives.
    • Religion gives people certain ultimate values and ends to hold in common.
    • These values and ends help a society to function as an integrated social system.
  • 13. The Role of Religion
    • Religion and Social Support
    • Through its emphasis on the divine and the supernatural, religion allows us to do something about the calamities we face.
    • Religion encourages us to view our personal misfortunes as unimportant in the broader perspective of human history.
  • 14. The Role of Religion
    • Religion and Social Change
    • The Weberian Thesis
      • --Weber argued that followers of the Protestant Reformation emphasized a disciplined work ethic, this-worldly concerns, and a rational orientation for life.
      • --This became known as the Protestant ethic.
      • --A by-product of this ethic was a drive to accumulate savings that could be used for future investment.
  • 15. The Role of Religion
    • Religion and Social Change
    • Liberation Theology
      • --The use of a church in a political effort to eliminate poverty, discrimination, and other forms of injustice evident in a secular society.
  • 16. The Role of Religion
    • Religion and Social Control: A Conflict View
    • Marx argued that religion impeded social change by encouraging people to focus on other-worldly concerns rather than their poverty or exploitation.
    • Marx felt religion drugged the masses into submission by offering a consolation for their harsh live on earth: the hope of salvation in an ideal afterlife.
  • 17. Religious Behavior
    • Common Elements of Religion
    • Belief : Religious beliefs are statements to which members of a particular religion adhere.
    • Ritual : Religious rituals are practices required or expected of members of a faith.
    • Experience: Religious experience is the feeling or perception of being in direct contact with the ultimate reality or of being overcome with religious emotion.
  • 18. Religious Organization
    • Ecclesiae
    • An ecclesia is a religious organization claiming to include most or all of the members of a society and is recognized as the national or official religion.
    • Ecclesiae are conservative, in general, and do not challenge the leaders of a secular government.
  • 19. Religious Organization
    • Denominations
    • A denomination is a large, organized religion not officially linked with the state or government.
    • A denomination tends to have an explicit set of beliefs, a defined system of authority, and a generally respected position in society.
    • A denomination usually claims as members large segments of a population.
  • 20. Religious Organization
    • Sects
    • A sect can be defined as a relatively small religious group that has broken away from some other religious organization to renew what it considers the original vision of the faith.
    • Sects are fundamentally at odds with society and do not seek to become established national religions.
  • 21. Religious Organization
    • New Religious Movements or Cults
    • New religious movements are generally small secretive religious groups that represent either a new religion or a major innovation of an existing faith.
    • New religious movements are similar to sects in that they tend to be small and are viewed as less respectable than more established faiths.
  • 22. Religious Organization
    • Comparing Forms of Religious Organizations
    • Ecclesia, denominations, sects, and new religious movements have somewhat different relationships to society.
    • Ecclesiae, denominations, and sects are best viewed as types along a continuum.
    • New religious movements, they are outside the traditional continuum of religious organizations.
    • Advances in electronic communication have led to the electronic church.
  • 23. Religious Organization Table 13.2: Characteristics of Ecclesiae, Denominations, Sects, and New Religious Movements
  • 24. Sociological Perspectives on Education
    • Functionalist View
    • Manifest Functions: The major manifest functions of education are the transmission of knowledge and the bestowal of status.
    • Latent Functions : The latent functions of education include transmitting culture, promoting social and political integration, maintaining social control, and serving as agents of social change.
  • 25. Sociological Perspectives on Education
    • Functionalist View
    • Transmitting Culture
      • --Education transmits the dominant culture, exposing young people to the existing beliefs, norms, and values of their culture.
    • Promoting Social and Political Integration
      • --Education transforms a diverse population into a society whose members share a common identity.
  • 26. Sociological Perspectives on Education
    • Functionalist View
    • Maintaining Social Control
      • Schools teach students punctuality, discipline, scheduling, and responsible work habits, and how to negotiate through a bureaucratic organization.
    • Serving as an Agent of Change
      • Schools serve as a meeting ground where distinctive beliefs and traditions can be shared.
  • 27. Sociological Perspectives on Education
    • Conflict View
    • Education is an instrument of elite domination.
    • Schools reinforce existing social class inequality.
    • Convince subordinate groups of their inferiority.
  • 28. Sociological Perspectives on Education
    • Conflict View
    • The Hidden Curriculum
      • --Standards of behavior that are deemed proper by society are taught subtly in schools.
    • Bestowal of Status
    • --Education bestows status in a differential fashion, sorting students according to social class.
    • Credentialism
    • -- Describes the increase in the lowest level of education needed to enter a field.
  • 29. Sociological Perspectives on Education
    • Conflict View
    • Treatment of Women in Education
      • --In the United States, the educational system has long been characterized by discriminatory treatment of women.
      • --Sexism in education shows up in many ways:
        • Stereotypes in textbooks
        • Pressure on women to study traditional women’s subjects
        • Unequal funding for men’s and women’s athletic programs
        • Employment bias for administrators and teachers.
  • 30. Sociological Perspectives on Education
    • Conflict View
    • Treatment of Women in Education (continued)
      • --Women have made great strides in the proportion of women continuing their education.
      • --In cultures where traditional gender roles remain as social norms, women’s education suffers appreciably.
  • 31. Sociological Perspectives on Education
    • Interactionist View
    • Labeling and self-fulfilling prophecy suggest if we treat people in particular ways, they may fulfill our expectations.
    • The teacher-expectation effect documents the impact of teacher expectations and their large role in student performance.
  • 32. Sociological Perspectives on Education Figure 13.4: Percentage of Adults 25 to 64 Who Have Completed Higher Education, 1998
  • 33. Sociological Perspectives on Education Students by Level of School Enrollment: 1970--2000 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. The Population Profile of the United States: 2000 . Figure 8-1. (Internet Release) accessed at 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Millions Elementary High school Nursery/kindergarten 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 College Note: The figures for 1970 and 1971 do not include students aged 35 and older.
  • 34. Sociological Perspectives on Education People Aged 18 to 24 by Enrollment Status and Race and Hispanic Origin: October 2000 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. The Population Profile of the United States: 2000 . Figure 8-2. (Internet Release) accessed at Percent distribution of people in age group Enrolled in college High school graduate, not in college In high school High school dropout Total White non-Hispanic Black Asian and Pacific Islander Hispanic (of any race)
  • 35. Sociological Perspectives on Education High School and College Graduates: 1970—2000 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. The Population Profile of the United States: 2000 . Figure 9-1. (Internet Release) accessed at 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1970 1980 1990 2000 Percent of population in age group High school graduate or more, 25 to 29 years old High school graduate or more, 25 years old and over Bachelor’s degree or more, 25 to 29 years old Bachelor’s degree or more, 25 years old and over
  • 36. Sociological Perspectives on Education People Aged 25 and Older Who Have Completed High School or More for Selected Racial and Ethnic Groups: 1989--2000 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. The Population Profile of the United States: 2000 . Figure 9-2. (Internet Release) accessed at White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic (of any race) 81.0 88.4 65.0 78.9 51.0 57.0 1989 2000 (Percent of population aged 25 and older)
  • 37. Sociological Perspectives on Education Table 13.3: Foreign Students by Country of Origin or Destination
  • 38. Schools as Formal Organizations
    • Bureaucratization of Schools
    • Weber noted five characteristics of bureaucracy, all of which are evident in most schools:
      • Division of labor
      • Hierarchy of authority
      • Written rules and regulations
      • Impersonality
      • Employment based on technical qualifications
  • 39. Schools as Formal Organizations
    • Teachers: Employees and Instructors
    • The Teacher’s Conflict
      • --The organization follows the principles of hierarchy and expects adherence to its rules.
      • --Professionalism demands the individual responsibility of the practitioner.
      • --Many fewer students choose teaching as a career than in the past due to perceived low income, the cost of education, and low respect given to the profession.
  • 40. Schools as Formal Organizations Figure 13.5: Teacher Salaries in Selected Countries
  • 41. Schools as Formal Organizations
    • Student Subcultures
    • Schools provide for students’ social and recreational needs, and the student subculture is complex and diverse.
    • Research has identified four ideal types of subcultures at the college level:
        • collegiate
        • academic
        • vocational
        • nonconformist
  • 42. Schools as Formal Organizations Figure 13.6: Students at Risk: Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual
  • 43. Social Policy and Religion
    • Religion in the Schools
    • The Issue
      • -- Should public schools be allowed to sponsor organized prayers or other expressions of religion in the classroom?
      • --Those who object want to maintain a strict separation of church and state.
      • --Who has the right to decide these issues?
  • 44. Social Policy and Religion
    • Religion in the Schools
    • The Setting
      • -- The issues are at the heart of the First Amendment’s provisions on religious freedom.
      • --In 1987 the Supreme Court ruled that states could not compel the teaching of creationism in public schools.
      • --Many school districts now require that teachers entertain alternative theories to evolution and to the creation of the universe, and some discount evolution altogether.
  • 45. Social Policy and Religion
    • Religion in the Schools
    • Sociological Insights
      • -- Supporters of school prayer and of creationism feel that the use of nondenominational prayer can in no way lead to the establishment of an ecclesia in the United States.
      • --Opponents of school prayer and creationism argue that a religious majority in a community might impose religious viewpoints specific to its faith at the expense of religious minorities.
  • 46. Social Policy and Religion
    • Religion in the Schools
    • Policy Initiatives
      • -- School education is fundamentally a local issue.
      • --Religious fundamentalists have had some success in pushing their agenda by getting their own candidates elected to state and local school boards.
      • --The activism of religious fundamentalists in the nation’s public schools raises a more general question: Whose ideas and values deserve a hearing in classrooms?