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Sociology, A brief introduction: Schaefer (5e)

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  1. 2. 4 Socialization
  2. 3. Chapter Outline <ul><li>The Role of Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>The Self and Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization and the Life Course </li></ul><ul><li>Agents of Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Social Policy and Socialization: Child Care aroundthe World </li></ul>
  3. 4. The Role of Socialization <ul><li>Environment: The Impact of Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Early socialization experiences in normal environments are important. </li></ul><ul><li>Caregivers should be concerned with children’s social needs in addition to their physical needs. </li></ul>
  4. 5. The Role of Socialization <ul><li>The Influence of Heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Studies of Identical Twins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Intelligence tests show similar scores when twins are reared apart in roughly similar social settings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Intelligence tests show quite different scores when twins are reared apart in dramatically different social settings. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. The Role of Socialization <ul><li>Sociobiology </li></ul><ul><li>Sociobiology is the systematic study of the biological bases of social behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>In its extreme form, sociobiology suggests that all behavior is the result of genetic or biological factors and places little emphasis on social interaction. </li></ul>
  6. 7. The Self and Socialization <ul><li>Sociological Approaches to the Self </li></ul><ul><li>Cooley: Looking-Glass Self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--The self is the product of our social interactions with other people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Our view of ourselves comes from not only our contemplation of personal qualities, but also from our impressions of how others perceive us. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--We learn who we are by interacting with others. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. The Self and Socialization <ul><li>Sociological Approaches to the Self </li></ul><ul><li>Mead: Stages of the Self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Preparatory Stage: Children imitate people around them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Play Stage: Children develop skill in communicating through symbols. Role taking occurs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Game Stage: Children consider actual tasks and relationships simultaneously. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. The Self and Socialization <ul><li>Sociological Approaches to the Self </li></ul><ul><li>Mead: Stages of the Self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Symbol: The gestures, objects and language that form the basis of human communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Role Taking: The process of mentally assuming the perspective of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Generalized Others: The attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole that a child takes into account. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. The Self and Socialization <ul><li>Sociological Approaches to the Self </li></ul><ul><li>Mead: Theory of the Self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--The self begins as a privileged, central position in a person’s world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--As a person matures, the self changes and begins to reflect greater concern about the reactions of others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Significant Others: Individuals who are most important in the development of the self. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. The Self and Socialization <ul><li>Sociological Approaches to the Self </li></ul><ul><li>Goffman: Presentation of the Self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Impression Management: The individual slants the presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy particular audiences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Dramaturgical Approach: People resemble performers in action. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. The Self and Socialization <ul><li>Psychological Approaches to the Self </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Piaget emphasized the stages humans progress through as the self develops. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--Freud stressed the role of inborn drives and believed that the self is a social product. He also believed that aspects of personality are influenced by others (especially one’s parents). </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Socialization and the Life Course <ul><li>The Life Course </li></ul><ul><li>Rites of passage are a means of dramatizing and validating changes in a person’s status. </li></ul><ul><li>These specific ceremonies mark stages of development in the life course. </li></ul><ul><li>We encounter some of the most difficult socialization challenges in the later years of life. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Socialization and the Life Course <ul><li>Anticipatory Socialization and Resocialization </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of socialization occur throughout the life course. </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipatory Socialization: The processes of socialization in which a person “rehearses” for future occupations and social relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Resocialization: The process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one’s life. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Agents of Socialization <ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>The family is the primary agent of socialization. </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization by the family begins shortly after birth. </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization is typically, but not always, positive. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Agents of Socialization Living Arrangements of Children Under Age 18: 1980, 1990, and 2000 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. The Population Profile of the United States: 2000 . Figure 6-1. (Internet Release) accessed at 76.7 18.0 3.7 69.1 22.4 4.2 4.1 72.5 21.6 3.1 2.8 1980 1990 2000 Two parents Father; no mother Mother; no father No parent in household Percent distribution of children under age 18
  16. 17. Agents of Socialization Children Living With Two Parents by Type of Parent: 1996 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. The Population Profile of the United States: 2000 . Figure 6-2. (Internet Release) accessed at Two biological parents 88.2% One biological and one stepparent 9.3% Adoptive mother and father 1.4% Other combination 1.1%
  17. 18. Agents of Socialization Children Under Age 12 Who Have Ever Been in Child Care by Age of Child, and Parent’s Marital and Employment Status: 1994 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 2001. The Population Profile of the United States: 2000 . Figure 6-3. (Internet Release) accessed at Married, both working Married, one working Married, no workers Single parent, working Single parent, not working Less than 3 3 to 5 6 to 11 71.4 82.7 56.5 18.0 47.1 39.1 21.8 35.6 40.9 79.3 90.7 59.4 23.6 42.8 41.1
  18. 19. Agents of Socialization <ul><li>School </li></ul><ul><li>Schools teach children the values and customs of the larger society. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools have traditionally socialized children into conventional gender roles. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Agents of Socialization <ul><li>Peer Group </li></ul><ul><li>As children grow older, peer groups increasingly assume the role of Mead’s significant others . </li></ul><ul><li>Peer groups can ease the transition to adult responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Peer groups can encourage children to honor or violate cultural norms and values. </li></ul><ul><li>Peer groups can be a source of harassment as well as support. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Agents of Socialization <ul><li>Mass Media and Technology </li></ul><ul><li>53 percent of all children ages 12 to 18 have their own televisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Television permits imitation and role playing but does not encourage more complex forms of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology is socializing families into multitasking as the social norm. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Agents of Socialization Figure 4.1: Children’s Media Usage.
  22. 23. Agents of Socialization <ul><li>Workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to behave appropriately within an occupational setting is a fundamental aspect of human socialization. </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization in the workplace involves four phases: </li></ul><ul><li>career choice anticipatory socialization </li></ul><ul><li>conditioning continuous commitment </li></ul>
  23. 24. Agents of Socialization Figure 4.2: Teenagers on the Job and in School–International Comparisons.
  24. 25. Agents of Socialization <ul><li>The State </li></ul><ul><li>The state has usurped many of the traditional family functions. </li></ul><ul><li>The state has re-instituted many rites of passage including stipulating the ages at which we are permitted to: </li></ul><ul><li>drink drive vote </li></ul><ul><li>marry retire work overtime </li></ul>
  25. 26. Agents of Socialization Family Income and Child Care Source: Lynne M. Casper, 1995. “What Does It Cost to Mind Our Preschoolers?” Current Population Reports, ser. P-70, no. 52. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, Figure3, p. 84. Less than $1,200 $1,200 to $2,999 $3,000 to $4,499 $4,500 or more Below poverty Above poverty Percent of Monthly Family Income Spent on Child Care by Family Income and Poverty Status* 25% 12% 8% 6% 18% 7% *Limited to families with a preschooler
  26. 27. Social Policy and Socialization <ul><li>Child Care Around the World </li></ul><ul><li>The Issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- In 1999, more than 65 percent of all mothers with children under the age of six were part of the work force. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Day care centers have become the functional equivalent of the nuclear family. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--What is the state’s responsibility for assuring quality day care? </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Social Policy and Socialization <ul><li>Child Care Around the World </li></ul><ul><li>The Setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Finding the right kind of day care is a parenting challenge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Researchers have found that high-quality child care centers do not adversely affect the socialization of children. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Social Policy and Socialization <ul><li>Child Care Around the World </li></ul><ul><li>The Sociological Insights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Studies assessing the quality of child care outside of the home reflect the microlevel of analysis favored by interactionists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--Functionalists study child care from the perspective of macro-level analysis of the family as a social institution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--The feminist conflict perspective raises questions about the low status and wages of day care workers, most of whom are women. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Social Policy and Socialization <ul><li>Child Care Around the World </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Initiatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Policies regarding child care outside of the home vary throughout the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--When policymakers decide that child care is desirable, they must determine the degree to which taxpayers should subsidize it. </li></ul></ul>