Oil Spill Nature Ankeshnagar 26122011


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Oil spills are becoming common. The major brunt falls on nature. The power point presentation is made to highlight the effects the spill has on shoreline, ocean and living beings. The www help has been taken to make the impact felt and the knowledge of everybody.

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Oil Spill Nature Ankeshnagar 26122011

  3. 3. OIL SLICK
  4. 4. DOUBLE HEADED MONSTER <ul><li>Oil -- when it heats our homes and powers our vehicles, it is a necessity. </li></ul><ul><li>When it spills into our waters and coats our shores, it becomes a big problem. </li></ul><ul><li>A double headed monster at one head development & at other disaster. </li></ul>
  5. 6. OIL SPILLS FROM <ul><li>OFFSHORE WELLS </li></ul><ul><li>TANKERS, BARGES </li></ul><ul><li>PIPELINES </li></ul><ul><li>STORAGE TANKS </li></ul><ul><li>BOATS </li></ul>
  8. 10. OIL SPILL VICTIMS <ul><li>Oil spills along coasts affect many parts of the environment: </li></ul><ul><li>Non-living </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean bottom, </li></ul><ul><li>Shoreline </li></ul><ul><li>Living </li></ul><ul><li>Sea birds </li></ul><ul><li>Marine mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Shellfish </li></ul><ul><li>People. </li></ul><ul><li>Bathic organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Mangroves </li></ul><ul><li>Sea grass, sea weed </li></ul><ul><li>Coral reefs </li></ul>
  9. 11. BIO-SHIELDS ARE DAMAGED <ul><li>Mangroves </li></ul><ul><li>Coral reefs </li></ul><ul><li>Sea grass </li></ul><ul><li>Sea weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Animal habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Marine parks </li></ul><ul><li>Marine sanctuaries </li></ul>
  10. 12. EFFECTS <ul><li>The oil destabilizes the entire marine food chain, beginning with plankton, microscopic organisms that live in ocean depths, being deprived of the sunlight they need to make food. </li></ul><ul><li>The death of plankton means death for marine animals that feed on them and so on up the food chain to humans. </li></ul>
  12. 14. MANGROVES <ul><li>Serve as an important buffer between sea and land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lessen impact of intense storms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce erosion and increase sedimentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important coastal pioneer species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as basis for a complex, biologically diverse, and productive ecosystem </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. MANGROVES <ul><li>Leaked oil permeates the coastal waters and streams, coating the exposed, air breathing roots of the mangroves. </li></ul><ul><li>It becomes difficult, if not impossible, for the plants' breathing lenticels to perform their essential functions, thus in effect slowly suffocating the mangroves. </li></ul><ul><li>Massive mangrove die-offs are a common phenomena plaguing the mangrove regions where coastal oil exploitation occurs. </li></ul>
  15. 17. CORAL REEFS CORALS  slow growing colonies of animals - growth rate = 1, 10 cm / yr. - occur in shallow tropical areas - sea water should be clean, clear and warm - provide habitat for a large variety of animals and plants
  16. 18. DAMAGING EFFECTS OF OIL SPILLS <ul><li>On the water’s surface : Can catch on fire and pollute the air. </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean floor: Oil can sink to the and destroy the habitats of sea animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Reacts with oxygen in the air: Oil can form acids that are carried by wind and eventually fall back to the ground as acid rain. </li></ul><ul><li>On beaches: Oil washes up on beaches and marshes resulting in life threatening habitats for wildlife species. </li></ul><ul><li>Sea turtles, birds, whales, fish, otters and other animals can become oil-soaked and die . </li></ul><ul><li>Dear, bears, wolves, dogs, and cats can die from eating oil-soaked beach plants and animal carcasses. </li></ul>
  17. 19. AGENTS OF DISASTER <ul><li>Major oil spills most commonly involve oils shipped in large quantities at sea </li></ul><ul><li>Crude petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>No. 1 and No. 2 fuel oils </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel oil </li></ul><ul><li>Bunker C oil </li></ul><ul><li>Kerosene </li></ul><ul><li>Jet fuel. </li></ul>
  18. 20. FATE OF THE SPILL <ul><li>Upto two-thirds of an oil-spill can evaporate in the first few days. </li></ul><ul><li>But before the light, toxic compounds evaporate, they kill fish and animal life and pose harm to future generations. </li></ul><ul><li>The thick oil also washes ashore creating reservoirs on the beaches of toxic chemicals that can have a lasting effect on the environment. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Contd- <ul><li>The rest of the floating oil breaks up into globules, which is whipped by the wind into a brown, foamy &quot;chocolate mousse&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Warm waters and sunshine help to break down the oil more quickly enabling bacteria to biodegrade it naturally. </li></ul><ul><li>The immediate impact of an oil slick is the mass death of fish and turtles and of birds because they cannot fly with wings coated by heavy oil </li></ul><ul><li>Spill also forms a film on the surface, it reduces the amount of light and oxygen passing into the water and suffocates marine life or causes it to go into a state of &quot; heat coma&quot;. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Emulsified Oil– “Chocolate Mousse”state
  21. 23. What happens to oil when it spills into the seas
  22. 24. A schematic representation of the fate of a crude oil spill showing changes in the relative importance of weathering processes with time. Biodegradation Sedimentation Evaporation Dispersion Dissolution Oxidation Emulsification Spreading Hour Day Week Month Year
  23. 25. Phytoplankton (microscopic plants) zooplankton (microscopic animals) Fish, crustaceans, molluscs, Whales, whale sharks Before oil spill Phytoplankton (microscopic plants) zooplankton (microscopic animals) Fish, crustaceans, molluscs, Whales, whale sharks O i l s p i l l After oil spill Emulsified “chocolate mousse” Emulsified “chocolate mousse”
  24. 26. IMPORTANT FACTORS <ul><li>Weather and season : </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: bird migration, nesting, or fish spawning; </li></ul><ul><li>Type of shoreline : </li></ul><ul><li>such as sand beach, tidal flat, rocky shore; </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to wave and tidal energy; </li></ul><ul><li>Types, abundance, and sensitivity of living resources. </li></ul>
  25. 27. THE OIL SHEEN <ul><li>Most oil has a density less than water and floats. The natural tendency of oil is to spread in a thin layer on the surface of the water as a sheen or film. </li></ul><ul><li>Such sheens are extremely difficult to recover and do not remain for long periods, however they do represent a continued threat to fish and wildlife, particularly nesting birds. </li></ul><ul><li>Under turbulent conditions, oil is more likely to disperse into the upper layers of the water. </li></ul>
  26. 28. ILL EFFECTS <ul><li>1. Direct lethal toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sub-lethal disruption of physiological and behavioral activities. This leads to death owing to the interference with both feeding and reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Direct coating or painting </li></ul><ul><li>4. Entry of hydrocarbons into the food web. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Alteration of biological habitats. </li></ul>
  28. 30. VERY LIGHT OIL SPILL <ul><li>Very light oils are highly volatile, which means they evaporate quickly, usually completely within one to two days after a spill. </li></ul><ul><li>These oils are also flammable and contain high concentrations of soluble toxic compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Very light oils can mix with water and kill aquatic life that lives in the upper layers. </li></ul><ul><li>Cleanup is usually not necessary, or possible, with spills of very light oil. </li></ul>
  29. 31. LIGHT OIL SPILL <ul><li>Light oils are moderately volatile, but can leave a residue of up to one-third of the amount spilled after a few days. </li></ul><ul><li>These oils contain moderate concentrations of soluble toxic compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Leave a film or layer on inter tidal resources with the potential of long term contamination. </li></ul><ul><li>Cleanup can be very effective. </li></ul>
  30. 32. MEDIUM OIL SPILL <ul><li>Medium oils are less volatile, leaving a residue of about two-thirds of the amount spilled after 24 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>These oils are less likely to mix with water, and oil contamination of intertidal areas can be severe and long-term. </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of medium oils on waterfowl and fur-bearing mammals can also be severe. </li></ul><ul><li>Cleanup is most effective with spills of medium oil if conducted quickly. </li></ul>
  31. 33. HEAVY OIL SPILL <ul><li>Heavy oils have far less evaporation or dilution potential, and they weather more slowly. </li></ul><ul><li>These oils do not readily mix with water. </li></ul><ul><li>Spills of heavy oils can cause severe contamination of intertidal areas and possible long-term contamination of sediments. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy oils have severe impacts on waterfowl and furbearing mammals. </li></ul><ul><li>Shoreline cleanup in spills of this type is difficult and long-term under most conditions </li></ul>
  32. 34. GROUP V OIL SPILL <ul><li>Group V oils, mostly very heavy oils, can float, sink, or hang in the water. </li></ul><ul><li>These oils can become oil drops and mix in the water, or accumulate on the bottom, or mix with sand and then sink. </li></ul><ul><li>As a rule, these oils are less toxic than lighter oils, however they pose significant problems to responders because they are extremely difficult to track or predict. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, particularly in the Northeast, they may impact many commercially important species like flounder and lobster </li></ul>
  34. 38. 1 <ul><li>Degradation of habitat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impairment of physical/ chemical environment, sea grass beds, near shore areas affects food chain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Particular vulnerability of seabirds, the most visible victims of a spill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oily habitat affects them directly, plus their food supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oily feathers reduces their insulating properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil can have potentially lethal effects on individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oiled birds have low survival rate, even with cleaning </li></ul></ul>
  35. 39. 2 <ul><li>Susceptibility of marine mammals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whales, seals, sea lions exhibit no avoidance behaviour. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulating properties of sea otter fur reduced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vulnerable species of fish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmon, ground fish, foragers like herring, sand lance, oolichans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelagics (free-swimmers) are less vulnerable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tainting issue could close down fishery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shellfish/invertebrates in intertidal zone extremely vulnerable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea urchins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oiled sea mussel beds becomes a potential long-term problem </li></ul></ul>
  36. 40. <ul><li>Small volume spill close to shore, response depot </li></ul><ul><li>Middle of summer, calm waters, long days </li></ul><ul><li>Light crude involved </li></ul><ul><li>Oil doesn’t spread much or emulsify thereby increasing in volume. </li></ul><ul><li>Spill swiftly contained and recovered </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal impacts, short-term consequences </li></ul>‘ BEST’ CASE SCENARIO
  37. 41. MEDIUM CASE SCENARIO <ul><li>Large volume spill from pipeline rupture </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs during March/April herring spawn </li></ul><ul><li>Windy, wavy conditions delay cleanup </li></ul><ul><li>Medium crude involved </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive damage to sensitive coastal resources over wide area </li></ul><ul><li>System recovers medium-term, e.g. 3-5 yrs </li></ul>
  38. 42. WORST CASE SCENARIO <ul><li>Blowout, or supertanker breaks in two, spilling large quantity of persistent, heavy crude oil </li></ul><ul><li>Oil impacts intertidal, beaches, penetrates sediment </li></ul><ul><li>Seagrass beds oiled, rockfish, juvenile salmon affected </li></ul><ul><li>Sand lance decimated, higher food chain levels impacted </li></ul><ul><li>Oil enters low wave energy inlets, persists for years </li></ul><ul><li>Eulachon, salmon stocks impacted, affects native culture </li></ul><ul><li>QCB ceases to function as a viable marine ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Cleanup, compensation costs run into billions of dollars </li></ul>
  39. 43. SEA OTTERS <ul><li>The oil matts their fur and causes them to lose insulation .  </li></ul><ul><li>Since sea otters do not have a thick layer of blubber like other sea animals, their fur is their only defense against the </li></ul>
  40. 44. PENGUINS
  41. 45. BEARS SEALS
  43. 48. EFFECTS OF AN OIL SPILL <ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Socio-economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Livelihood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 49. Impacts of Oil Spills <ul><li>Biological effects </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal activities </li></ul><ul><li>Specific marine habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Fisheries and mariculture </li></ul>
  45. 50. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS <ul><li>The physical nature of the oil causes contamination and smothering </li></ul><ul><li>The chemical components of the oil are toxic, can accumulate in organisms’ bodies </li></ul><ul><li>The gaseous and liquid components evaporate. Some get dissolved in water and even oxidize, and yet some undergo bacterial changes and eventually sink to the bottom by gravitational action. </li></ul><ul><li>The soil is then contaminated with a gross effect upon the terrestrial life. </li></ul>
  46. 51. contd <ul><li>As the evaporation of the volatile lower molecular weight components affect aerial life, so the dissolution of the less volatile components with the resulting emulsified water, affects aquatic life. </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-lethal effects that impair the ability of individual marine organisms to reproduce, grow, feed or perform other functions can be caused by prolonged exposure to a concentration of oil or oil components far lower than will cause death </li></ul>
  47. 52. <ul><li>Sedentary animals in shallow waters such as oysters, mussels and clams that routinely filter large volumes of seawater to extract food are especially likely to accumulate oil components . </li></ul>
  48. 53. Impact on specific marine habitats <ul><li>Plankton is a term applied to floating plants and animals carried passively by water currents in the upper layers of the sea. </li></ul>
  49. 54. contd <ul><li>Some marine mammals and reptiles, such as turtles, may be particularly vulnerable to adverse effects from oil contamination because of their need to surface to breathe and to leave the water to breed . </li></ul><ul><li>Adult fish living in near shore waters and juveniles in shallow water nursery grounds may be at greater risk to exposure from dispersed or dissolved oil. </li></ul>
  50. 55. contd <ul><li>The impact of oil on shorelines may be particularly great where large areas of rocks, sand and mud are uncovered at low tide. </li></ul><ul><li>The amenity value of beaches and rocky shores may require the use of rapid and effective clean-up techniques, which may not be compatible with the survival of plants and animals . </li></ul>
  51. 56. <ul><li>Marsh vegetation shows greater sensitivity to fresh light crude or light refined products whilst weathered oils cause relatively little damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Oiling of the lower portion of plants and their root systems can be lethal whereas even a severe coating on leaves may be of little consequence especially if it occurs outside the growing season . </li></ul>contd
  54. 61. Oil clogs the spaces between a bird’s feathers, making it impossible for them to fly. Many birds drown and sink in the ocean, never making it to the beaches .
  55. 69. Oil clogs the spaces between a bird’s feathers, making it impossible for them to fly. Many birds drown and sink in the ocean, never making it to the beaches . Cleaning oiled birds is not always successful. The birds are weak from struggling in the oil and may be ill from digesting oil while trying to clean their feathers.
  56. 71. HOW CAN OIL SPILLS BE CLEANED UP? <ul><li>Contain spill with oil booms : Booms are giant styrofoam logs wrapped in plastic that act like a floating fence. </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuum up spilled oil with skimmer boats : A skimmer is a boat with special equipment that collects oil from the surface of calm waters. </li></ul><ul><li>Absorb the oil with sawdust, straw, foam chips, or other sorbents. </li></ul><ul><li>Use chemicals to disperse the oil into small droplets and let it drift out to sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Biodegrade the oil by spreading microbes on beaches. Microbes are tiny organisms that can digest the oil. </li></ul>
  57. 73. HOW CAN OIL TANKER SPILLS BE PREVENTED? <ul><li>Design safer oil tankers. </li></ul><ul><li>Double lined bottom instead of single metal layer. </li></ul><ul><li>Separate compartments for oil storage. In a double-hull tanker, the cargo tanks are separated from the ships outer hull to protect against the impact of an accident. </li></ul><ul><li>Thorough training of tanker crews. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop better emergency procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve navigation skills. </li></ul>
  58. 74. MANAGEMENT OPTIONS <ul><ul><ul><li>Protect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mitigate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restore </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  59. 78. THANK YOU FOR GIVING YOUR TIME & the www