Mind Control Study
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Mind Control Study

on

  • 698 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
698
Views on SlideShare
698
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Jones, E. (1999).The phenomenology of abnormal belief. Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology, 6, 1-16. Young,A.W. (2000).Wondrous strange:The neuropsychology of abnormal beliefs. In M. Coltheart & M. Davis (Eds.) Pathologies of belief (pp.47-74). Oxford: Blackwell. Myin-Germeys, I., Nicolson, N.A. & Delespaul, P.A.E.G. (2001).The context of delusional experiences in the daily life of patients with schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 31, 489-498. Kuhn, T. (1962) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Bell, V., Halligan, P.W. & Ellis, H. (2003) Belief about delusions. The Psychologist, 16 (8), 418-423.
  • Leeser, J., & O'Donohue, W. (1999) What is a delusion? Epistemological dimensions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology , 108, 687-694.
  • Letters relating to 1809 appeal to have Matthew’s released from Bethlem. On the left, a letter from Parish of Camberwell, promising to pay for Matthew’s keep if he is released to their care. On the right, a letter from the then home secretary, Lord Liverpool, recommending that Matthews be detained indefinitely.
  • Tausk, V. (1933) On the origin of the influencing machine in schizophrenia. Psychoanalytic Quarterly , 2, 519-56.
  • Jay, M. (2003) The Air Loom Gang: The Strange and True Story of James Tilly Matthews and His Visionary Madness. London: Random House.
  • Peters ER, Joseph SA, Garety PA. (1999) Measurement of delusional ideation in the normal population: introducing the PDI (Peters et al. Delusions Inventory). Schizophr Bulletin, 25 (3), 553-76.
  • Jackson MH: Assessing the structure of communication on the world wide web. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 1997;3:Retrieved 14th January, 2004 from http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol3/issue1/jackson.html Wellman B: Computer networks as social networks. Science 2001;293:2031-2034. Park HW: Hyperlink network analysis: A new method for the study of social structure on the web. Connections 2003;25:49-61. Park HW, Thelwall M: Hyperlink Analyses of the World Wide Web: A Review, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 2003;8:Retrieved 14th January 2004 from http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol8/issue4/park.html
  • Goodman LA: Snowball sampling. Annals of Mathematical Statistics 1961;32:148-170.
  • Lusseau, D. (2003) The emergent properties of a dolphin social network. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London – Biology Letters, Supplement 2, S186-S189. Freeman SC, Freeman LC: The networkers network: A study of the impact of a new communications medium on sociometric structure. Social Science Research Reports No 46 . Irvine CA, University of California, 1979. Killworth B, Bernard H: Informant accuracy in social network data. Human Organization 1976;35:269-286. Zachary W: An information flow model for conflict and fission in small groups. Journal of Anthropological Research 1977;33:452-473.
  • Wasserman S, Faust K: Social network analysis: Methods and applications . Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  • Watts DJ, Strogatz SH: Collective dynamics of 'small-world' networks. Nature 1998;393:440-442.
  • Freeman LC: Centrality in Social Networks: Conceptual clarification. Social Networks 1979;1:215-239.
  • Frey AH: Human auditory system response to modulated electromagnetic energy. Journal of Applied Physiology 1962;17:689-692.
  • Fox N, Ward K, O'Rourke A. (2005) Pro-anorexia, weight-loss drugs and the internet: an "anti-recovery" explanatory model of anorexia. Sociol Health Illn , 27(7), 944-71. Rajagopal S. (2004) Suicide pacts and the internet. BMJ, 329 (7478), 1298-9.

Mind Control Study Mind Control Study Presentation Transcript

  • ‘ Mind Control’ from 1796 to the Internet: Vaughan Bell, Cara Maiden Antonio Mu ñoz, Venu Reddy [email_address] Dept of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry Implications for the Diagnosis of Delusions
  • Outline
    • Delusions and the history of influencing machines.
    • Do reports of mind control on the internet show any evidence of psychopathology ?
    • Do these reports show evidence of an underlying social structure? A social network analysis.
    • Implications for diagnosis of delusions.
    • A note on the influence of the internet on psychopathology.
  • What is a delusion ?
    • The DSM defines a delusion as a belief that is:
      • False, based on incorrect inference about external reality.
      • Firmly sustained, despite what almost everybody else believes...
      • … and despite what constitutes incontrovertible and obvious proof or evidence to the contrary
      • The belief is not one ordinarily accepted by other members of the person’s culture or subculture.
  • Criticisms
    • Falsity : Delusions may not be false ( Jones, 1999 ) or even falsifiable ( Young, 2000 )
    • Firmly sustained : Conviction in delusional beliefs may vary day-to-day ( Myin-Germeys et al, 2001 )
    • Despite obvious evidence to the contrary : Many normal beliefs show this pattern ( Kuhn, 1962 )
    • Not held by culture or subculture : No clear criteria for determining this ( Bell, Halligan and Ellis, 2003 ).
  • Cultural / Sub-cultural Beliefs
    • Leeser and O’Donohue (1999) suggest it is possible that sub-cultures could be based on delusional beliefs, citing cases like Charles Manson and Jim Jones.
    • These sort of quasi-religious beliefs are quite weak examples and would rarely be considered delusional by working clinicians.
    • Is it possible to find a sub-culture based on distinctly delusional beliefs, against the stated DSM criteria?
  • Camberwell Grove, 2006
  • Camberwell Grove, 1776
  • James Tilly Matthews
    • 1796, Matthews , a Welsh tea merchant, resident in Camberwell, interrupts a speech by Lord Liverpool in the House of Commons,
    • is arrested, and taken to Bow Street Magistrates.
    • He claims that he is on a top-secret mission to secure peace between France and Britain.
    • That the authorities were out to stop.
    • And in particular, he was under assault by teams of ‘magnetic spies’ using an ‘air loom’ to control him.
  • James Tilly Matthews
    • “ I am brain-connected to a machine that can broadcast pictures to my eyes and voices to my mind, and I experience being fully controlled from head to toe frequently .”
    • Matthews was admitted to Bethlem Hospital as a pauper.
    • Much legal wranglings ensued as his family tried to get him released.
  • Just because you’re paranoid…
  • Illustrations of Madness
  • The Air Loom
  • The Influencing Machine
    • He noted that such delusional devices take the form of a diabolical machine, just outside the technical understanding of the subject.
    • Always operated by the subject’s enemies who set out to persecute them.
    • Tausk (1933) wrote a seminal paper ‘ On the Origin of the Influencing Machine in Schizophrenia ’
    Victor Tausk
  • Modern day ‘Air Looms’ “ It feels like the people who assault me have some replica of myself, electronically connected to me. By remote control, they are able to hurt me - in various ways - by doing something to their replica (or electronic doll) of me. They also use 'voice-to-skull technology, emf, elf, microwave radiation and other similar bodily, brain-invasive & abuse technology .” taken from Internet, 2003
    • Jay (2003) has noted the similarity between historical accounts of ‘influencing machines’ and many which appear on the internet.
  • Online Communities
    • People describing such experiences are often part of an online ‘mind control’ community.
    • Which would be at odds with the DSM definition.
    • We conducted a study which set out to test this by:
      • Rating text to establish the presence of psychopathology.
      • Testing for a social network to establish the presence of a community based around potentially delusional beliefs.
  • Data Collection
    • Used the web to collect source material.
    • 10 independently published personal accounts of mind control experiences were collected from the internet.
    • These were compared with a same number of independently published accounts of depression , cancer and being stalked .
    • To control for mental illness, clinical involvement / trauma and persecution.
  • Content Analysis
    • Each account was blind-rated by three independent psychiatrists for presence of:
    • The raters had full agreement (Kappa = 1) that ‘mind control accounts’ reflected delusional beliefs.
    • ‘ Ex-military neighbours’ and ‘husband’s cohorts’ using ‘recently declassified technology’
    • ‘ Rings of sex deviates’ (sic) using ‘high energy radiation’ technology
    • Royal Canadian Mounted Police using a ‘telepathic amplifier that works with microwaves’
    • ‘ Freemasonic intelligence agencies’ using ‘frequency weapons’
    • ‘ Police’ using a ‘brain implant’
    • ‘ Implantable controlling chip’
    • ‘ Dutch government’ using a ‘network of transmitters’
    • ‘ Politicians and journalists’ using ‘satellite surveillance and harassment technologies’
    • ‘ Bad Guys’ using ‘psychotronics’ and ‘microwaves’
    • ‘ Warsaw Pact Military Research’ using ‘hypnosis and electromagnetic waves’
    Attributions
  • Self-report services contact Mind Control Contact with Psychiatric Services Cancer Depression Being Stalked 7 10 4 2
  • Further Questions
    • This suggests that mind control accounts are associated with psychosis-like experiences.
    • This may be interesting in terms of anthropology but has no implications for psychiatric diagnosis.
    • But, according to the DSM, people with delusional beliefs should, by definition, not belong to a community based on the content of those beliefs.
    • Can we find evidence of a community based upon potentially delusional beliefs on the internet ?
  • Social Network Analysis
    • SNA is a tool for identifying structures in social networks based on relations between components.
    • An SN is conceptualised as a set of ‘nodes’ and ‘links’, representing social actors and relationships - such as affiliation or information exchange.
    • Jackson (2004) and Wellman (2001) have argued that web links are likely to reflect underlying social structure.
    • A view which has been supported by reviews of the hyperlink analysis literature Park (2003) and Park and Thelwall (2004).
  • Network Construction
    • The network was sampled by the use of ‘snowball sampling’ (Goodman, 1961)
      • Each initially identified report was designated as a node in the network.
      • Each link to an external site was designated as a network connection.
      • Each external site was also designated as a network node.
  • Comparisons
    • Compared sampled mind control network to...
    • A randomly generated network with the same number of nodes and connections (Lusseau, 2003) .
    • Known social networks from the literature:
      • Computer conf (Freeman & Freeman, 1979)
      • Ham radio (Killworth and Bernard, 1976)
      • Karate club (Zachary, 1977)
  • Random Network Layout using 3D Fruchterman-Reingold algorithm
  • Mind Control Network Layout using 3D Fruchterman-Reingold algorithm
  • Network Distance
    • Distance ( d ) the mean length of shortest path through the network.
    • Wasserman and Faust (1994): Smaller d indicates quicker information transfer between individuals and greater group cohesion
    d Computer conference Mind control 1.57 1.36 Ham radio 2.03 Karate club 2.41 Random net 4.53
    • Clustering coefficient ( C ) , a measure of the likelihood that two associates of a node are associates themselves.
    • Watts and Strogatz (1999): A higher C indicates a greater ‘cliquishness’.
    Network Clustering C Computer conference Mind control 0.16 0.75 Ham radio 0.69 Karate club 0.59 Random net 0.01
  • Group Degree Centralisation
    • Group degree centralisation ( C D ) , measure of group dispersion or how network links focus on a specific node or nodes.
    • Freeman (1979): High C D thought to be an important structural attribute of social networks.
    C D Computer conference Mind control 49.6% 49.3% Ham radio 48.8% Karate club 40.0% Random net 1.3%
  • Network Results Summary
    • The mind control network looks very similar to a real social network.
    • Particularly, the smaller distance / higher clustering than random network implies it is a ‘small world’ network.
    • The effect of this can perhaps be seen in common themes which permeate the content of the sampled accounts.
  • Common Themes
        • Journal of Applied Physiology, 17(4), 689-692.
    • For example, Frey (1963) is frequently cited
    • As is the CIA’s MKULTRA programme
  • Common Themes
    • Usually cited as evidence for the reality of the authors’ experiences.
    • Indeed, several authors identify with ‘anti-mind control’ campaigns and lobby groups.
    • Importantly, it is not being suggested that everyone with such interests is psychotic.
    • Although the authors sampled here are likely to be.
    Common Themes
  • Conclusions
    • The sampled reports of ‘mind control’ experiences are likely to be significantly influenced by psychotic experience.
    • The organisation of these web sites suggests the existence of a community based on these beliefs which directly challenges the diagnostic criteria for a delusion.
    • The internet is likely to have an increasing effect on the presentation, aetiology and prognosis of psychopathology.
  • Internet and Psychopathology
    • As well as psychosis, the internet is now becoming recognised as an influence on:
      • Suicide ( Rajagopal, 2004 )
      • Anorexia / bulimia : ‘pro-ana’ etc ( Fox et al., 2005 )
    • Suggesting it should be of increasing interest to researchers and clinicians.
    • And could mediate how people engage with services.