Nano tech


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Nano tech

  2. 2. PAPER PRESENTATION ON NANOTECHNOLOGY WHAT IS NANO? “The creation of functional devices, and systems through the control of matter on nm Length scales and the exploitation of novel properties at this length scale.” How big (small) is a nanometer? NANO is “dwarf” and denotes a billionth 1,000,000,000 = 1 billion 0.000000001 = 1 billionth 1 x 10^-9 = 1 billionth WHAT IS NANOTECHNOLOGY ? “Nanotechnology is the engineering of the functional systems at the molecular scale.” This covers both work and concepts that more advanced. In its original sense NANOTECHNOLOGY refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up , using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, 2
  3. 3. high performance products. 2.Living systems are able to live because of the vast amount of highly ordered molecular machinery from which they are built. 3.The central dogma of molecular biology states that the information required to build a living cell or organism is stored in the DNA. 4.This information is transferred from the DNA to the proteins by the processes called transcription and translation. 5.Molecular biology is a field in which the study of these interactions has led to the discovery of numerous pharmaceuticals that have been enormously effective in curing disease. HISTORY/ORIGIN The first use of the concepts found in 'nano-technology' (but pre-dating use of that name) was in "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom," a talk given by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959. The term "nanotechnology" was defined by Tokyo Science University Professor Norio Taniguchi in a 1974 3
  4. 4. In the 1980s the basic idea of this definition was explored in much more depth by Dr. K. Eric Drexler, who promoted the technological significance of nano-scale phenomena and devices through speeches and the books Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology . Nanotechnology and nanoscience got started in the early 1980s with two major developments; the birth of cluster science and the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). This development led to the discovery of fullerenes in 1985 and carbon nanotubes a few years later. In another development, the synthesis and properties of semiconductor nanocrystals was studied; this led to a fast increasing number of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles and quantum dots. The atomic force microscope (AFM or SFM) was invented six years after the STM was invented. In 2000, the United States National Nanotechnology Initiative was founded to coordinate Federal nanotechnology research and development. FUNDAMENTALCONCEPTS One nanometer (nm) is one billionth, or 10−9 , of a meter. By comparison, typical carbon- carbon bond lengths, or the spacing between these atoms in a molecule, are in the range 0.12– 0.15 nm, and a DNA double-helix has a diameter around 2 nm. On the other hand, the 4
  5. 5. smallest cellular life-forms, the bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma, are around 200 nm in length. To put that scale in another context, the comparative size of a nanometer to a meter is the same as that of a marble to the size of the earth. Or another way of putting it: a nanometer is the amount a man's beard grows in the time it takes him to raise the razor to his face. Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the "bottom-up" approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition. In the "top-down" approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control. Areas of physics such as nanoelectronics, nanomechanics and nanophotonics have evolved during the last few decades to provide a basic scientific foundation of nanotechnology. Fundamental Understanding Characterization and Experimentation Modeling and Simulation Synthesis and Integration Nano to Macro Inorganic and Organic Optical with Mechanical with Electrical with Magnetic with … 5
  6. 6. FOUR GENERATIONS Mihail (Mike) Roco of the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative has described four generations of nanotechnology development (see chart below). The current era, as Roco depicts it, is that of passive nanostructures, materials designed to perform one task. The second phase, which we are just entering, introduces active nanostructures for multitasking; for example, actuators, drug delivery devices, and sensors. The third generation is expected to begin emerging around 2010 and will feature nanosystems with thousands of interacting components. A few years after that, the first integrated nanosystems, functioning (according to Roco) much like a mammalian cell with hierarchical systems within systems, are expected to be developed. Some experts may still insist that nanotechnology can refer to measurement or visualization at the scale of 1-100 nanometers, but a consensus seems to be forming around the idea (put forward by the NNI's Mike Roco) that control and restructuring of matter at the nanoscale is a necessary element. CRN's definition is a bit more precise than that, but as work progresses through the four generations of nanotechnology leading up to molecular nanosystems, which will include molecular manufacturing, we think it will become increasingly obvious that 6
  7. 7. "engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale" is what nanotech is really all about. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN DIFFERENT FIELDS Nanotechnology in IT Field 1.A branch of computer science that is allowing rapid progress to be made in nanotechnology is the computer simulation of molecular scale events. 2. Molecular simulation is able to provide and predict data about molecular systems that would normally require enormous effort to obtain physically. 3. By organizing virtual atoms in a molecular simulation environment, one can effectively model nanoscale systems. 4. For nanoscale systems, simulations and theory infact have provided novel properties that has led to new designs, materials and systems for nanotechnology applications. EXAMPLE: carbon nanotubes applications in molecular electronics Nanotechnology in Medical Field Molecular medicine, bioinformatics and biomolecular nanotechnology are rapidly increasing our ability to heal and stay healthy. BIOTECHNOLOGY: 1. All living organisms are composed of molecules, molecular biology has become the primary focus of biotechnology. Nanotechnology in Robotics NANOROBOTS: Nanorobots are theoretical microscopic devices measured on the scale of nanometers. Nanomedicine : 1.Nanorobots are so tiny that they can easily traverse the human body. Scientists report the exterior of a nanorobot will likely be constructed of carbon atoms in a diamondoid structure because of its inert properties and strength. 2. Glucose or natural body sugars and oxygen might be a source for propulsion, and the nanorobot will have other biochemical or molecular parts depending on its task. 7
  8. 8. 3. Nanorobots will possess at least rudimentary two-way communication; will respond to acoustic signals; and will be able to receive power or even re-programming instructions from an external source via sound waves. 4. A network of special stationary nanorobots might be strategically positioned throughout the body, logging each active nanorobot as it passes then reporting those results, allowing an interface to keep track of all of the devices in the body. 5. A doctor could not only monitor a patient’s progress but change the instructions of the nanorobots in vivo to progress to another stage of healing. When the task is completed, the nanorobots would be flushed from the body. Nanotechnology in Electronics 1.As transistors such as the Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET ) one of the primary components used in integrated circuits) is made smaller, both its properties and manufacturing expense change with the scale. 2.Currently, Ultraviolet light is used to create the silicon circuits with a lateral resolution around 200 nm (the wavelength of ultraviolet light). 3.As the circuits shrink below 100 nm new fabrication methods must be created, resulting in increasing costs. 4.Furthermore, once the circuit size reaches only a few nanometers, quantum effects such as tunneling begin to become important, which drastically changes the ability for the computers to function normally. 5. Thus, novel methods for computer chip fabrication have been and are being intensely sought by microchip manufactures. Nano Mirrors 1.The objective is to quantify aerial image in terms of important parameters such as normalized image log slope, contrast, and spots/min feature size, to come up with the most robust method of gray-scaled pattern generation using analog modulation of micromirrors. Nano springs (Belts) 1.The objective is to quantify aerial image in terms of important parameters such as normalized image log slope, contrast, and spots/min feature size, to come up with the most robust method of gray-scaled pattern generation using analog modulation of micromirrors. 8
  9. 9. Nanotubes & Nano bearings 1.This is a computer-rendered model of a partially telescoped nanotube with a Leonardo DaVinci manuscript as the background. 2.In the manuscript, DaVinci considers the construction of bearings, and also the frictional forces that might be encountered in bearings and sliding surfaces. 3. He also has a drawing of a constant force spring (a mass hanging from a cord over a pulley). 4. A nanotube bearing may be the ultimate realization of some of DaVinci's dreams: Here is the same model without the DaVinci manuscript in the background NANOMOTOR 1. The small Nanomotor is half the size of a match stick. 2. It can lift six times of its own mass. The dynamic force of this Nanomotor is so high that even imprints in diamond surfaces can be produced. Current research 9
  10. 10. Graphical representation of a rotaxane, useful as a molecular switch. Sarfus image of a DNA biochip elaborated by bottom-up approach. This device transfers energy from nano-thin layers of quantum wells to nanocrystals above them, causing the nanocrystals to emit visible light 10
  12. 12. Involved in making a manufacturing process environmentally benign. An environmentally benign material or manufactured product that replaces toxic substances or minimizes raw materials. Synthetic or manufacturing processes which can occur at ambient temperature and pressure. Nanotechnology for pollution prevention Use of non-toxic catalysts with minimal production of resultant pollutants. Use of aqueous-based reactions. Build molecules as needed -- “just in time.” Nanoscale information technologies for product identification and tracking to manage recycling, remanufacture, and end of life disposal of solvents. 12
  13. 13. Nanotechnology and the Environment Nature of nanoparticles themselves. The bad… • As nano-xyz is manufactured, what materials are used? Characteristics of the products made. Manufacturing processes involved. • What waste is produced? • Are toxic substances used in the manufacturing of nano-xyz? • What happens when nano-xyz gets into the air, soil, water, or biota? The good… Nanotechnology has the potential to substantially benefit environmental quality and sustainability through •Pollution prevention •Treatment •Remediation •Information 13
  14. 14.  To detect and “kill” individual cancer cells before they manifest as tumors using functionalized nanoparticles ◦ 5 to 10 nm particles (small enough to interact with intracellular markers) ◦ nanoparticles are coated and functionalized with antibodies, oligonucleotides, peptide ligands and drugs ◦ Introduced to body via bloodstream ◦ “Look” for markers inside cell by MRI or deliver agent or irradiate Not fordistribution 14