Computer Languages


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A computer languages are the languages by which a user command a computer to work on the algorithm which a user has written to get an output.
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Computer Languages

  1. 1. COMPUTER LANGUAGES • A computer languages are the languages by which a user command a computer to work on the algorithm which a user has written to get an output. TWO TYPES OF COMPUTER LANGUAGES • Low-level languages • High-level languages
  2. 2. Computer Languages Low Level Languages High Level Languages Machine Languages Assembly languages
  3. 3. Low Level Language A low-level programming language is a programming language that provides little or no abstraction from a computer's instruction set architecture. It consists of numeric codes i.e 0 & 1. These codes are easily understandable to computer but difficult to human.. A lower level language is used in two generations of computer. •First generation •Second generation
  4. 4. First generation languages (1GL) Represent the very early, primitive computer languages that consisted entirely of 1's and 0's - the actual language that the computer understands (machine language).
  5. 5. Second generation languages (2GL) Represent a step up from the first generation languages. Allow for the use of symbolic names instead of just numbers. Second generation languages are known as assembly languages. Code written in an assembly language is converted into machine language (1GL).
  6. 6. CHARACTERSTICS OF LOW LEVEL LANGUAGES • Direct memory management • Little-to-no abstraction from the hardware • Register access • Statements usually have an obvious correspondence with clock cycles • Superb performance
  7. 7. Advantages •Computational Speed is very fast. •Directly understandable by computer. Disadvantages •Development of a program in machine language is very time consuming. •Error correction is tedious process.
  8. 8. HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGES • High-level programming languages allow the specification of a problem solution in terms closer to those used by human beings. These languages were designed to make programming far easier, less error- prone and to remove the programmer from having to know the details of the internal structure of a particular computer. This language is used in third generation.
  9. 9. Third generation languages (3GL) With the languages introduced by the third generation of computer programming, words and commands (instead of just symbols and numbers) were being used. These languages therefore, had syntax that was much easier to understand. Third generation languages are known as "high level languages" and include C, C++, Java, and Javascript, among others.
  10. 10. 11 The Evolution of Programming Languages The Evolution of Programming Languages
  12. 12. CHARACTERSTICS • Interpreted • Dynamic constructs (open classes, message- style methods, etc) • Poor performance • Concise code • Flexible syntax (good for internal DSLs)
  13. 13. Advantages •These are simple to adopt due to their english like structure of statements. •They are easy to maintain and debug. Disadvantages •The Program written in high level language are less efficient as they take more execution time. •The compiler also consumes some memory as it is required for the translation process.
  14. 14. 16 Systems Software • Systems software: coordinates the activities and functions of hardware and programs • Computer system platform: combination of a hardware configuration and systems software
  15. 15. 17 Supporting Individual, Group, and Organizational Goals
  16. 16. 18 Installing and Removing Software for PCs • Before you can use software, it must be installed on a computer • Software for personal computers typically comes on CDs or is downloaded from the Web • Most operating systems have an add/remove program feature for removing software – Does not work with all software – Does not always remove all elements of the software
  17. 17. 19 Systems Software • Systems software – Controls operations of computer hardware – Supports application programs’ problem-solving capabilities • Types of systems software – Operating systems – Utility programs – Middleware
  18. 18. 20 Operating Systems • Operating system (OS): set of programs that controls the computer hardware and acts as an interface with application programs • Kernel: ties all components of the OS together and regulates other programs
  19. 19. 21 Application Software • Application software: helps users solve particular problems • In most cases, application software resides on the computer’s hard disk • Application software can also be stored on CDs, DVDs, and flash or keychain storage devices
  20. 20. 22 Operating Systems (continued) • Various combinations of OSs, computers, and users – Single computer with a single user – Single computer with multiple users – Multiple computers – Special-purpose computers
  21. 21. 23 Operating Systems (continued) • Activities performed by the operating system – Perform common computer hardware functions – Provide a user interface and input/output management – Provide a degree of hardware independence – Manage system memory – Manage processing tasks – Provide networking capability – Control access to system resources – Manage files
  22. 22. 24 Operating Systems (continued) The Role of Systems Software The role of Systems Software –interface between users, application software and hardware
  23. 23. 25 Operating Systems (continued) • OS acts as an intermediary between application and hardware • OS converts basic request into a set of details instruction that the hardware requires • Common hardware functions (e.g.) 1. Get input from keyboard or some other input device 2. Retrieve data from disks 3. Store data on disks 4. Display information on a monitor or printer
  24. 24. 26 Operating Systems Functions 1. User interface and input/output management – User interface: allows individuals to access and command the computer system – Command-based user interface: requires that text commands be given to the computer to perform basic activities – Graphical user interface (GUI): uses icons and menus displayed on screen to send commands to the computer system
  25. 25. 27 Operating Systems Functions (continued) 2. Hardware independence – Application program interface (API): allows applications to make use of the operating system 3. Memory management – Control how memory is accessed and maximize available memory and storage
  26. 26. 28 Operating Systems Functions (continued) Application Program Interface Links Application Software to the Operating System
  27. 27. 29 4. Processing tasks – Multitasking: more than one program can run at the same time – Time-sharing: allows more than one person to use a computer system at the same time – Scalability: ability of the computer to handle an increasing number of concurrent users smoothly 5. Networking capability – Features and capabilities of the OS that aid users in connecting to a computer network Operating Systems (continued)
  28. 28. 30 Operating Systems (continued) 6. Access to system resources and security – Protection against unauthorized access – Logins and passwords 7. File management – Ensures that files in secondary storage are available when needed and that they are protected from access by unauthorized users
  29. 29. 31 Current Operating Systems Popular Operating Systems Cross All Three Spheres of Influence
  30. 30. 32 Current Operating Systems (continued) • Microsoft PC operating systems – PC-DOS and MS-DOS: early, command-driven OSs – Windows XP: greatly improved stability and security over previous versions of Windows – Windows XP N: for European market – Windows XP Professional X64: for computers with newer 64-bit capabilities – Windows XP Media Center Edition: incorporates additional multimedia features – Vista: latest version of Windows
  31. 31. 33 Current Operating Systems (continued) • Apple operating systems – Often provide cutting edge tools in graphics and music not available from Microsoft – Mac OS X • Jaguar (OS X.2) • Panther (OS X.3) • Tiger (OS X.4): support for 64-bit computing, Dashboard, Spotlight, etc.
  32. 32. Principles of Information Systems, Eighth Edition 34 Current Operating Systems (continued) • Linux – Developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991 – Open-source product – Only the kernel of an OS – Several distributions available with capabilities/applications that form a complete OS • Examples: Red Hat Linux, Caldera OpenLinux
  33. 33. 35 Workgroup Operating Systems • Windows Server • UNIX • NetWare • Red Hat Linux • Mac OS X Server
  34. 34. 36 Enterprise Operating Systems • z/OS • MPE/iX • HP-UX • Linux
  35. 35. 37 Operating Systems for Small Computers, Embedded Computers, and Special-Purpose Devices • Palm OS • Windows Embedded • Windows Mobile
  36. 36. 38 Utility Programs • Help to perform maintenance or correct problems with a computer sistem • Common types of utility programs: – Hardware utilities – Virus-detection and recovery utilities – File-compression utilities – Spam and pop-up blocker utilities
  37. 37. 39 Utility Programs (continued) • Network and Internet utilities • Server and mainframe utilities • Other utilities – Manages and protects corporate documents – Helps people with visual disabilities use the Internet – Monitors employees – Searches for files and documents
  38. 38. 40 Application Software • Primary function is to apply the power of the computer to give individuals, workgroups, and the entire enterprise the ability to solve problems and perform specific tasks • Application programs interact with systems software; systems software then directs computer hardware to perform the necessary tasks
  39. 39. 41 Overview of Application Software (continued) Types of Application Software
  40. 40. 42 Workgroup Application Software (continued) Ernst & Young’s “Three Cs” Rule for Groupware
  41. 41. 43 Enterprise Application Software (continued) Examples of Enterprise Application Software
  42. 42. 44 Application Software for Information, Decision Support, and Specialized Purposes • Specialized application software for information, decision support, and other purposes is available in every industry • Examples – Genetic researchers use software to visualize and analyze the human genome – Music executives use decision support software to help pick the next hit – Decision support software is used to increase the
  43. 43. 45 The Evolution of Programming Languages How a Compiler Works
  44. 44. 46 The Evolution of Programming Languages (continued) Reusable Code in Object-Oriented Programming