HUMAN DISASTERSHuman disasters are also known as anthropogenicdisasters and they as a result of human intent, erroror as a result of failed systems. These are brokendown into several categories and while this is thecase, there are some that cause more pronounceddamage when compared to others. A good exampleis to look at Human disasters such astransportation. These are divided into differentcategories which include aviation, rail, road andspace among others. Often these are as a result ofneglect or ignorance and over the years, they haveclaimed several lives.
NUCLEAR BOMBAnother type of disaster that falls in this category isnuclear bomb. When this occurs, it is often as a result ofintent and the end results are even more catastrophicwith a large percentage of those involved losing their livesor alternatively ending up with major defects or longterm injuries. Other types of Human disasters which arejust as catastrophic include chemical spill, oil spill, arsonand terrorism. There are also some technological hazardswhich include power outages structuralcollapse, industrial hazards and fire. In cases of the lastexample, thousands of kilometers of land can bedestroyed and anything else that is in the wake of thefires path.
INDUSTRIAL HAZARDSIndustrial disasters occur in a commercialcontext, such as mining accidents. They oftenhave an environmental impact. The Bhopaldisaster is the worlds worst industrial disasterto date, and the Chernobyl disaster is regardedthe worst nuclear accident in history. Hazardsmay have longer-term and more dispersedeffects, such as dioxin and DDT poisoning.
WARWar is a conflict between relatively large groupsof people, which involves physical force inflictedby the use of weapons. Warfare has destroyedentire cultures, countries, economies andinflicted great suffering on humanity. Otherterms for war can include armedconflict, hostilities, and police action. Acts ofwar are normally excluded from insurancecontracts and sometimes from disasterplanning.
FIREBush fires, forest fires, and mine fires are generallystarted by lightning, but also by human negligenceor arson. They can burn thousands of squarekilometers. If a fire intensifies enough to produce itsown winds and "weather", it will form into afirestorm. A good example of a mine fire is the onenear Centralia, Pennsylvania. Started in 1962, itruined the town and continues to burn today. Someof the biggest city-related fires are The GreatChicago Fire, The Peshtigo Fire (both of 1871) andthe Great Fire of London in 1666.
DEFORESTATIONDeforestation, is the removal of a forest or stand oftrees where the land is there after converted to anon-forest use. Examples of deforestation includeconversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urbanuse.About half of the worlds original forests had beendestroyed by 2011, the majority during the previous50 years. Since 1990 half of the worlds rainforests have been destroyed. More than half of theanimal and plant species in the world live in tropicalforests.
Rail DisastersA railroad disaster is an occurrence associated withthe operation of a passenger train which results insubstantial loss of life. Usually accidents with freight(goods) trains are not considered disasters, unlessthey cause substantial loss of life or property. Oneof the most devastating rail disasters occurred in2004 in Sri Lanka when 1,700 people died in the SriLanka tsunami-rail disaster. Other notable raildisasters are the 1989 Ufa accident in Russia whichkilled 574, and the 1917 Modane train accident inFrance which killed 540.