House Flies Musca


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House Flies Musca

  1. 1. Part two of Flies - DIPTERIA
  2. 2. House flies - Musca <ul><li>The family Muscidae contains variety of similar genera of importance to humans and domestic animals. These are typical cylorraphan flies. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Sexes </li></ul><ul><li>The sexes are similar in appearance, but the eyes of female are further than those of males. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Some species such as M. domestica are very widely distributed throughout the world; this is partly due to their close association with humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts </li></ul><ul><li>Most species of Musca feed on liquids rich in organic matter to be found on excrement, rubbish, carcasses and on secretions from humans such as from mucous membranes and wounds. The mouthparts of most Musca are adapted only for sponging liquid from the surface of a solid. </li></ul><ul><li>Musca crassirostis has strong prestomal teeth and abrades the skin of cattle to draw blood on which it feeds. </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>The feeding habits and mechanism of feeding makes Musca flies potential vectors of about 60 pathogens which can be transmitted on contaminated mouthparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Musca flies are not usually the most common means by which any of these pathogens are transmitted. </li></ul><ul><li>Important pathogens include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viruses of hepatitis and polio; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria causing salmonellosis, shigellosis, tuberculosis, trachoma, leprosy, and yaws; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The protozoa causing amoebic dysentery; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nematodes of threadworm and hookworm. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Sheep head fly (sweat fly) - Hydrotaea This genus in the family Muscidae, and is an important transmitter of faecal pathogens in tropical climates (synonym: Ophyra)
  5. 5. <ul><li>The distribution is worldwide but highest numbers are found in cool humid climates of palaearctic and neartic regions. </li></ul><ul><li>The life cycle is the Musca type, with larvae in carrion and decomposing organic material. </li></ul><ul><li>Adults swarm around the head of the host feeding at wounds, at the eyes and mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>The irritation caused is intense. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrotaea transmits the bacteria which cause mastitis in cattle. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sweat flies - Morellia Distribution is worldwide. The life cycle is of the Musca type. Adults swarm around livestock and sometimes humans, feeding on sweat and at mucous membranes, causing severe nuisance.
  7. 7. Eye flies - Hippelates and Siphunculina These genera are in the family Chloropidae of acalyptrate cyclorrhaphan flies. They are separate from the rest of the flies described but are included here for convenience.
  8. 8. Hippelates Siphunculina
  9. 9. <ul><li>Hippelates occurs in the neotropical region; Siphunculina occurs in the oriental region. </li></ul><ul><li>Adult flies swarm around the eyes and head of livestock, and at wounds, feeding on tears, mucous secretions and blood, causing severe nuisance. </li></ul><ul><li>They may transmit the bacteria causing conjunctivitis and yaws. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Tsetse - Glossina Flies of the genus are known as tsetse. They are closely related to the family Muscidae, but normally given their own family name, Glossinidae. There are 23 species.
  11. 11. <ul><li>Sexes </li></ul><ul><li>Both sexes are blood feeders. They are similar except for the genital apparatus. On the ventral side of the abdomen the male has a hypopygium like a knob. This can be distinguish the three taxonomic and ecological groups of tsetse when stretched out to show the structure of the claspers. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Glossina occurs only in the Afrotropical Region. The genus is divided into several ecological and taxonomic groups which are adapted for survival. In particular vegetation types. </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts </li></ul><ul><li>Females and males feed only on the blood of mammals and reptiles, occasionally on birds. </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>The species of Glossina that commonly feed on man are important vectors of the protozoan's causing human trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness; other species are also capable of transmission. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Stable flies - Stomoxys Stomoxys calcitrans is known as the stable fly, or bitting house fly.
  13. 13. <ul><li>Sexes </li></ul><ul><li>The sexes are closely similar and both feed on blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Stomoxys calcitrans occurs widely in most zoogeographical regions. Stomoxys niger and S. sitiens are common species in the Afrotropical and Oriental Regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle, horses, pigs and humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Stomoxys can be a bitting pest. They have been implicated in the transmission of numerous pathogens but are not normally the main vector of any pathogen to humans. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Horn flies, buffalo flies and other stomoxyine flies - Haematobia and Haematobosca Haematobia Haematobosca
  15. 15. <ul><li>Sexes </li></ul><ul><li>These are similar in appearance, both feed on blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Haematobia irrintants occurs in warm humid and tropical humid climates of the Palaearctic and Neartic Regions. Haematobia exigua occurs in similar climates but in the Australian and Oriental Regions. Haematobosca occurs in the Afrotropical, Paleaerctic and Oriental Regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Haemaatobia may feed on humans, particularly herders of livestock. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Blowflies – Calliphora, Lucilia, Phormia The blowflies are common and conspicuous by their size, buzzing noise and their metallic colouration of thorax and abdomen. The colours vary between species so that it is difficult to identify the genera by colour alone. Blowflies are important in forensic medicine to establish time of death of human corpses. A closely related genus is Protocalliphora in which the larvae are blood-sucking on nestling birds within the Neartic and Palearctic Regions. Protophormia terraenovea is an important bloefly in some areas.
  17. 17. Calliphora Lucilia Phormia
  18. 18. <ul><li>Sexes </li></ul><ul><li>The sexes are similar in appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>These genera are most common in the Palearctic and Neartic regions and are typical blowflies of cool humid climates. They have moved with humans throughout the world and are found in all regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae usually develop without causing harm to live hosts, but may cause faculative myiasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination of dirty bandages and wounds may occur causing faculative myiasis. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Screwworm – Chrymsomya and Cochliomyia The larvae of species that are parasitic are called scre worms. This is because the larvae burrow head first into the host, the rings of spines on the larvae making them similar to woodworking screws.
  20. 20. Chrymsomia Cochliomyia
  21. 21. <ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Chrymsomia bezziana is a cause of myiasis in humans particularly in the Oriental Region. Cochliomyia hominivorax can cause myiasis in humans. Where the infestation is in the head, starting at a wound or discharge from the nose, it is likely to be fatal. Infestations take the form of a batch of larvae forming a suppurating superficial lession in muscle or the body wall. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Fleshflies - Sarcophaga and Wohlfahrtia
  23. 23. <ul><li>Sexes </li></ul><ul><li>The sexes are similar. </li></ul><ul><li>S. cruentata is associated with humans and has become widely distributed in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>W. magnifica occurs in humid and tropical humid climates of the Palaearctic and Oriental Regions. </li></ul><ul><li>W. nuba occurs in dry climates of the Palaearctic and Oriental Regions. </li></ul><ul><li>W. vigil occurs in the Neartic Region. </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts </li></ul><ul><li>Larvae of S. cruentata are associated with humans. Larvae of Wohlfahrtia infest humans and many species of livestock: cattle, horses and donkeys, sheep and goats, camel, pigs, dogs and cats, rodents and rabbits. </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>S. cruentata sometimes a parasite to humans, superficially infesting existing wounds or occurring in the intestine by accidental ingestion. </li></ul><ul><li>W. magnifica may infest humans, causing superficial myiasis, particularly at the nose or eyes. Infestations are usually of few larvae, but the results can be very serious. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Tumbu fly and floor maggot – Cordylobia and Auchmeromyia
  25. 25. <ul><li>Sexes </li></ul><ul><li>Sexes are similar except that in males of A. senegalenesis the second abdominal segment is smaller than that in the female. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Occur in the Afrotropical Region where they are widespread. The adults lay eggs on soil near within the housing or burrows of their hosts. </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts </li></ul><ul><li>Cordylobia infest : </li></ul><ul><li>Humans, cats and a wide variety of wild animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Antelopes and rodent. </li></ul><ul><li>Auchmeromyia feed on pigs and wargoths, and also adapted for feeding mainly on humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Furuncular myiasis. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Nasal bot flies – Oestrus, Rhimoestrus and Cephalopina The larvae of all species are obligatory parasites, usually of ungulate mammals but occasionally of humans.
  27. 27. Oestrus Rhimoestrus Cephalopina
  28. 28. <ul><li>Sexes </li></ul><ul><li>Sexes of adult flies are similar, in males the eyes are closer together than in females. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Oestrus is widely distributed in most regions and climates. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhinoestrus is distributed in the Palaearctic, Oriental and Afrotrpical Regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalopina titillator is found in areas with large numbers of camels, typically in dry climates of the Palaeacrtic and Oriental Regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts </li></ul><ul><li>Oestrus mainly infests sheep and goats; Rhinoestrus infests horses and donkeys; Cephalopina infests camels. </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>May infest people living in close association with sheep or goats. Typically in the eye or eye socket where the results can be very serious if the larvae are not quickly extracted. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Warbles and stomach bots – Hypoderma and Gasterophilus They consist of few species. Warble flies are classified in the Oestridae family of bot flies; closely related is Oedemagena tarandi , the warble fly of reindeer. Stomach bot flies of horses are sometimes classified with the oestrids but are usually placed in the family Gasterophilidae.
  30. 30. Hypoderma Gasterophilus
  31. 31. <ul><li>Sesxes </li></ul><ul><li>The sexes of Hypoderma are similar. In females of gasterophilus the last abdominal segments are extended as an ovipositor. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoderma occurs in the Palaearctic and Neartic Regions, in warm humid and cool humid climates. Gasterophilus originated in the Afrotropical Region but has spread to most other regions with horses, and ranges from tropical humid climates. </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoderma may infest horses but the life cycle is not completed. Some of them infests deer; it may infest sheep but the life cycle is not completed. Gasterophilus infests horses, donkeys, mules and zebras. Humans may become infested by both genera but do not support full development of the larvae. </li></ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Infestations are rare . </li></ul>
  32. 32. The torsalo and rodent bots – Dermatobia and Cuterebra D. Hominis is also known as the human bot fly, berne or nuche. Despite the human association, it is most important as a common and serious infestation of cattle. Cuterebra is rarer as a medical or veterinary problem.
  33. 33. Dermatobia Cuterebra
  34. 34. <ul><li>Sexes </li></ul><ul><li>These are similar except for more widely separated ayes in females. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>D. hominis occurs in the tropical humid and warm humid climates of the Neotropical Region; infestations of larvae may be carried to other regions by the hosts. </li></ul><ul><li>Cuterebra occurs in the warm humid and dry climates of the Heartic Region. </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts </li></ul><ul><li>D. hominis infest cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, monkeys, birds, cats, dogs and humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Cuterebra infest rodents and rabbits but may infest cats and dogs and infestations of human have been recorded. </li></ul>