THE STEM CELL THERAPY Ang, Mary Grace V. Arenda, Clarise D. Valdecantos, Anjeline R.
INTRODUCTION• Stem cell therapy is certainly a promising area for research. These have the ability to give rise to many specialize cells in on organisms.• Stem cells could be used to repair or replaced damaged organs.• Stem cells therapy can cure many diseases.
STEM CELL• Stem cells are unspecialized or undifferentiated cells that have the unique ability to give rise to many different cell types such as skin, liver, kidney, heart, neuron or other organ cells.
DISEASE CURED BY STEM CELL THERAPY • Spinal cord injuries • Diabetes mellitus • Cancer • Stroke • Tooth implanting • Deafness and blindness • Baldness, etc.,
SPINAL CORD INJURIES • The stem cells are first collected from a patient’s bone marrow, extracted from the hipbone (iliac crest) then implanted back into the body days later. • These re-injected stem cells have the potential to transform into multiple types of cells and are capable of regenerating damaged tissue.
STEM CELL TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS • Adult stem cell therapy with autologous stem cells fights type 1 and type 2 diabetes at its roots, reducing hyperglycemia . • These re-injected stem cells are capable of regenerating damaged cells such as pancreatic beta cells.
STEM CELL TREATMENT OF STROKE • A cerebrovascular accident is also known as a stroke. The stem cells are collected from patient’s bone marrow (iliac crest). • These cells are re-injected into the damaged tissue have the potential to transform into multiple types of cells and are capable of regenerating the damaged tissue.
CANCER TREATMENT• Umbilical cord blood stem cells have been used to treat cancer patients with conditions such as leukemia and lymphoma.• The unfortunate side effect of the chemotherapy that the Stem Cell Transplant attempts to reverse;
HEART DAMAGE• Several clinical trials targeting heart disease have shown that adult stem cell therapy is safe and effective.• Adult stem cell therapy for heart disease was commercially available on at least five continents.
BALDNESS• Hair follicles also contain stem cells, and some researchers predict research on these follicle stem cells may lead to successes in treating baldness through "hair multiplication", also known as "hair cloning",
• Treatment is expected to work through taking stem cells from existing follicles, multiplying them in cultures, and implanting the new follicles into the scalp
TOOTH IMPLANTING• Stem cells taken from the patient could be coaxed in the lab into turning into a tooth bud which, when implanted in the gums, will give rise to a new tooth.• It will fuse with the jawbone and release chemicals that encourage nerves and blood vessels to connect with it .
DEAFNESS AND BLINDNESS • There has been success in re-growing cochlea sensory hair cells with the use of stem cells. Using embryonic stem cells, scientists are able to grow a thin sheet of totipotent stem cells in the laboratory. • When these sheets are transplanted over the damaged retina, the stem cells stimulate renewed repair, eventually restoring vision
CLINICAL TRIALS• On January 23, 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration gave clearance to Geron Corporation for the initiation of the first clinical trial of an embryonic stem cell-based therapy on humans. The trial aimed evaluate the drug GRNOPC1, embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, on patients with acute spinal cord injury
• The trial was discontinued in November 2011 so that the company could focus on therapies in the "current environment of capital scarcity and uncertain economic conditions". As of mid 2010 hundreds of phase III clinical trials involving stem cells have been registered.
STEM CELL ISSUES• The main ethical theories used by opponents and supporters in this controversy are consequentialism and deontological ethics. Consequentialism is the ethical theory that assess the rightness or wrongness of a certain action based on the desirability of the results or the consequences of the action
STEM CELL ISSUES• In this theory good actions are actions that brings happiness or pleasure to the largest number of people.
STEM CELL ISSUES• Unlike consequentialism, deontological ethics primary concern is the action in its self. The word Deon is a Greek word that means duty or obligation. This ethical theory judges the wrongness or rightness of an action based on the conformity of that action with certain norms or principals.
STEM CELL ISSUES• Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher expressed his deontological theory using the categorical imperatives. These categorical imperatives are principles that serve to guide the conduct of people. One of Kant’s categorical imperatives says, “always treat persons as ends in themselves and not merely as means to some other end.”
STEM CELL ISSUES• If we give to the human embryo the moral status of a person, then under this principle it will be wrong to destroy the human embryo to save the lives of others.