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# Projectile

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### Projectile

1. 1. Any Object that is given an initial velocity at any angle and that subsequently follows a path determined by gravitational forcepath determined by gravitational force acting on it is called a PROJECTILE
2. 2. • We started off with a bunch of discarded wood, some pieces of steel and lots of old and rusted nails. • Out of this we built a nice looking launch• Out of this we built a nice looking launch pad with adjustable angle, an attached elastic to adjust speed, and a rocket-like projectile to give the “Effect”!!
3. 3. Angle (deg) Velocity (m/s) Range (mtr.) 30 9.1 7.4 We launched projectile at different angles and velocities. The observations are given on next slide 30 4.56 1.95 45 4.56 2.3 45 6.82 4.9 60 4.56 1.8
4. 4. • The projectile has both a vertical and horizontal componentsThe projectile has both a vertical and horizontal componentsThe projectile has both a vertical and horizontal componentsThe projectile has both a vertical and horizontal components of velocityof velocityof velocityof velocity • The only force acting on the projectile once it is shot is gravityThe only force acting on the projectile once it is shot is gravityThe only force acting on the projectile once it is shot is gravityThe only force acting on the projectile once it is shot is gravity (neglecting air resistance)(neglecting air resistance)(neglecting air resistance)(neglecting air resistance) • At all times the acceleration of the projectile is g = 10 m/sAt all times the acceleration of the projectile is g = 10 m/sAt all times the acceleration of the projectile is g = 10 m/sAt all times the acceleration of the projectile is g = 10 m/s2222• At all times the acceleration of the projectile is g = 10 m/sAt all times the acceleration of the projectile is g = 10 m/sAt all times the acceleration of the projectile is g = 10 m/sAt all times the acceleration of the projectile is g = 10 m/s downwarddownwarddownwarddownward • The horizontal velocity of the projectile does not changeThe horizontal velocity of the projectile does not changeThe horizontal velocity of the projectile does not changeThe horizontal velocity of the projectile does not change throughout the paththroughout the paththroughout the paththroughout the path • The Vertical velocity of the projectile reduces on its upwardThe Vertical velocity of the projectile reduces on its upwardThe Vertical velocity of the projectile reduces on its upwardThe Vertical velocity of the projectile reduces on its upward path and increases in the opposite direction on its downwardpath and increases in the opposite direction on its downwardpath and increases in the opposite direction on its downwardpath and increases in the opposite direction on its downward pathpathpathpath
5. 5. ANGLE Height increases with increase in Angle. Range increases till 45deg. and there onRange increases till 45deg. and there on decreases. (NOTE: 0 < = Angle < = 90) Range is same in case of complementary angles
6. 6. INITIAL VELOCITY Range increases with increase in Velocity. Height increases with increase in Velocity.Height increases with increase in Velocity. At the maximum height the vertical velocity is 0.
7. 7. GRAVITY Maximum Height of the projectile is inversely Proportional to Gravitational AccelerationProportional to Gravitational Acceleration Time of Flight is inversely Proportional to Gravitational Acceleration. Range is inversely Proportional to Gravitational Acceleration.
8. 8. DRAG Increase in Drag Co efficient decreases the range. Increase in Drag Co efficient decreases the height.Increase in Drag Co efficient decreases the height. The trajectory of the projectile doesn’t remain parabolic.
9. 9. • We can see that the horizontal and vertical motions are independent • The red ball falls vertically• The red ball falls vertically • The yellow ball was given a kick to the right. • They track each other vertically step for step and hit the ground at the same time
10. 10. To verify that horizontal velocity is constant in projectile motion weis constant in projectile motion we shot a video of a ball in projectile motion, and….
11. 11. The video was separated into frames as follows
12. 12. In the previous six frames, the values for distance covered (x) in regular intervals of time (t) were recorded as follows: Distance Covered (grid units) Time(s) From To 1.5 0 0.5 1.75 0.5 11.75 0.5 1 1.5 1 1.5 1.5 1.5 2 1.25 2 2.5 The constant horizontal velocity hence measured is 3 grid units per second, i.e. constant velocity.