Phylum porifera,coelentrata , platyhelminthes

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Phylum porifera,coelentrata , platyhelminthes

  1. 1. Phylum Porifera The Sponges 1 Phylum Porifera
  2. 2. Phylum Porifera Overview  Most –  There is some debate if sponges are complex colonial protozans and not metazoans. Sponges – – 2 primitive of the multicellular animals Over 7,000 species, approximately 40 species that occur in local waters 2% of all sponges are freshwater, none are terrestrial Phylum Porifera
  3. 3. Phylum Porifera Overview  Sponges occur in shallow water habitats and vary widely in size (up to 1m. high) and shape – Unlike most metazoans they lack:  All 3 sponges are sessile filter feeders Phylum Porifera
  4. 4. Sponge Diversity Erect Rope Sponge Black-ball sponge Yellow Tube Sponge 4 Phylum Porifera
  5. 5. Porifera Anatomy  Spongocoel  Ostia  Oscules 5 Phylum Porifera
  6. 6. Collar Cells  Choanocytes: Choanocytes 6 (collar cells) act as a pump to bring water into the sponge Phylum Porifera
  7. 7. Sponge Support  Collagen is found between the inner canals and chambers – Mesohyl  Ameboid cells located in the mesohyl, have different roles – – 7 Archeocytes Sclerocytes Phylum Porifera
  8. 8. Sponge Support 8 Phylum Porifera
  9. 9. Spicules  Collagen is stiffened by adding microscopic mineral accretions or additional protein fibers (spongin) or both. – 9 Spicules: skeleton structures, made of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or silicon dioxide (SiO2). Spicules Phylum Porifera
  10. 10. Sponge Types
  11. 11. Porifera Reproduction  Asexual budding  Regeneration: can regenerate from broken pieces  Sexual – 11 Usually hermaphroditic with male and female cells scattered throughout the connective tissue. Phylum Porifera
  12. 12. Porifera Larvae  Neighboring sponges are fertilized by sperm entering through the ostia – 12 Ciliated mouth less larvae (parenchymella) is released. Parenchymella Phylum Porifera
  13. 13. Porifera Classification  Phylum – – – – 14 Porifera Class Calcarea Class Demospongiae Class Hexactinellida Sclerospongiae is no longer considered a class Phylum Porifera
  14. 14. Class Calcarea  Have spicules made of calcium carbonate  Mostly small in size (<15 cm.), and form irregular masses  Never contain spongin, restricted to shallow water, and strictly marine 15 Phylum Porifera
  15. 15. Class Demospongiae (Most sponges)   Have spicules made of silicon dioxide (SiO2) or spongin or a combination of both Most sponges belong to this class (90%) –   16 Nearly all are leuconoid body type Mostly found on the continental shelf Spongia spp. (Bath sponge) Phylum Porifera
  16. 16. Class Hexactinellida (Glass sponges)     17 Spicules are made of silica Usually found in deep water on soft substrates in the tropics 200-1,000m. Spicules are six pointed and have a lattice-like structure Cup, vase or urn shape Euplectella (Deep sea Glass sponge) Phylum Porifera

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