Conservation and preservation of archival materials and manuscripts 1

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Conservation and preservation of archival materials and manuscripts 1

  1. 1.   Workshop on Conservation and preservation of archival materials and manuscripts  24th & 25th august 2010 Mumbai University Report by   Anjali Londhe
  2. 2. Conservation and preservation of archival materials and manuscripts Day1 -.24th august 2010   1.Manuscript Preservation Concept –Dr.Sushma Paudwal,SNDT univeristy Librarian,Mumbai 2.Microfilming as a method of preservation – Dr.Vivekanand Gopal,curator, saraswati mahal Library 3.Factors leading to manuscript deterioration –Ms.Amruta Natu –Bhandarkar Oriental research Centre   Day 2-25th August 2010   1.Preservation of archival Records-Dr.Arun Divekar 2.Descriptive cataloguing of manuscripts-Sampada jadhav 3.Digitization of manuscripts as a preservation technique-Dr.Vivek patkar.
  3. 3. Inauguaration <ul><li>The function was formally inaugurated by A.C.Tikekar,former university librarian,mumbai </li></ul><ul><li>A.C.Tikekar – Former mumbai university librarian </li></ul><ul><li>In his lecture sir has emphasized on following points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of Writing materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of Base-Palm Leaf, Parchment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accession register for manuscripts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalogingof manuscripts & broad classification of materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation Techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xerox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>microfilming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  National Mission of Manuscripts </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Preservation of manuscripts :Conceptual framework Sushma Paudwal SNDT University Librarian, Mumbai <ul><li>Manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>Manus +Hand script = Written </li></ul><ul><li>Manuscript -Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Antiquities & Art treasure Act 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>  Handwritten Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific, Literary, Artistic, Historic Value </li></ul><ul><li>75 year old </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of manuscripts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Heritage </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Rich Tradition of manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>For identification of age and value of manuscripts following points are considered. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety of Subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variety of Formats- Stone, Cloth, Metal, leaves, Paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variety of Languages- Sanskrit, Prakrit, Marathi, Tamil, Pali </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variety of Scripts - Devanagri, Brahmi, Modi, Ardhamagdhi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Illustrations, Colours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location of Indian Manuscripts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T emples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monasteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dormitories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homes of Scholars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Royal Palaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem With Manuscripts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertain authorship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proliferation of Different Versions of the Text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enormity of anonymous words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lingual & scriptoral Variations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose Leaf Practice of Maintenance </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Preservation and conservation of library materials </li></ul><ul><li>preservation and conservation includes following issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restoration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dilemma of Preservation Vs Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi pronged Approach- artifact, Surrogate, Digitization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archives & manuscript Management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Archives -Old Records </li></ul><ul><li>Govt Archives - Govt Records </li></ul><ul><li>Common Concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Format specific Care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster Preparedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>handling & use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security & conservative Treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  Palm Leaf Boxes </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 techniques of preservation </li></ul><ul><li>  1) 2 boxes for palm leaf- Thermal Insulated  material - Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>2) Paper With Arsenic, Sulpher , -Binding Manuscripts - Chinese </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Manuscriptology </li></ul><ul><li>It includes acquisition, Processing, repair & care, transcription, transliteration, Identifying age & value of manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>C.C.Morrow </li></ul><ul><li>  Preservation is taken to prevent, stop or retard deterioration of materials </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of Preservation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological Agents- Fumigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage Conditions -Air Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate Control -Temperature & humidity Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster preparedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training Users   </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilization & maintenance of Existing materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical or chemical Intervention to ensure Survival of manuscripts & other documents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration Returning Deteriorated Item to its original Condition </li></ul><ul><li>Specific techniques of mending  & repair </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unesco memory of asia project -1992 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intach -lucknow Conservation Status of manuscripts, Banaras Hindu University 1990 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asiatic Society Library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library of Congress Microfilming Project 1990 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Down Memory Lane Project 1991 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archives -Department of India Grant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Mission of Archives Project 2003 -IGNCA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Preservation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memorial Lectures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Courses Conducted By </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intach- Lucknow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asiatic Library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National manuscript Mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bhandarkar Orientle Research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conservation Guidelines http://www.namami.org </li></ul>
  9. 9. Microfilming as a method of preservation  Dr.Vivekanand Gopal   Saraswati mahal Library, Tanjavur <ul><li>  Basic Considerations for microfilm system design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archival Material Description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handling and maintenance procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy and confidentiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem statement & needs assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Micrographics </li></ul><ul><li>Reproducing information on microforms </li></ul><ul><li>Micro record </li></ul><ul><li>Micro film </li></ul><ul><li>Process of micro record System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparing records for filming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coding & indexing of records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro photographing records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing the film </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Factors leading to manuscript deterioration  Ms. Amruta Natu <ul><li>Manuscript A document having cultural importance </li></ul><ul><li>Materials of Manuscripts Palm Leaf - Incised -southern, Painted-Gujrat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bhurja patra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper -A)Handmade Paper-cellulose-Multi directional B)Machine made Paper-Bi Directional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of conservation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventive -Indirect Actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curative -Direct Actions Are Involved </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Factors of Deterioration <ul><li>1. Human Being   </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Touching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>2.Dust & atmospheric Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>3.Temperature & relative Humidity </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>4.Light </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>5.Insects & Fungus </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Dust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germs-Fungus Spores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal Particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soot –Kajali </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulpher Di oxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Di oxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Sulphide * H2s -Sulphuric Salt *So2-H2So4 *NH3 - Hygroscopic *CI- HCL Acid *Soot -Absorbs Acid </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Dust Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dusting & cleaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air Conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum no.of Visitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using & cleaning Doormats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using Curtains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placing in Cupboards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintaining Lawns Near Collection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise & fall of Temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of Fluctuations in Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring of Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea Condition - 20-25 degree Celsius </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plantation of Trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valyache padade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relative Humidity Present Water Vapor/Maximum Water Vapor *100 Fluctuations in Relative humidity Ideal Condition for Relative Humidity for manuscripts is 45-55% </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dehumidifier - Continuous Monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silika Gel - Absorbs Humidity - Reusable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baffles/Hurdles to change the directions of wind </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Lights alpha beta gama Infrared Luxmeter-measure lights </li></ul><ul><li>requirements for manuscript collection is 40 lux meter. </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lampshades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading Hall should be separate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>switching of lights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring -On off light     </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  Humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling Of humidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leakage of Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decompose the Book -Breaks the Cellulose Leakage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Thimol Chemical For treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Cockroach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silverfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Termites </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No Eatables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesh on Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use Ripelents-Napthalene balls,  paradycorabenzin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural hurbs -kapoor, neem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use stones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine new collection- before adding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pest Control Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deny Entry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deny Shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deny Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fumigation Chamber -air tight - Temperature -35 degree Celcius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before fumigation brushing is done </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disasters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water- Flood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic lamination </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 2 Efforts for manuscript resource centre <ul><ul><li>Preparation of national Register of manuscript </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manuscript conservation centrue </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Preservation of archival records   Dr.Arun Divekar niteeka <ul><li>Preservation Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>It includes follwing steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PH Test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aqueous Bath Solution Japanese Tissue Lamination or Banana Tissue Reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preservation is slow , tedious  & laborious Process . it requires minimum Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>preservation will be better with thymol Coated Paper </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese Tissue Paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese Tissue Paper is Pasted On paper with Maida </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissue Paper can be taken out if required </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. De lamination of Plastics is possible but its costly and technology is unavailable in India     Manuscript preservation cost depends on size of the book it    can be 6000-12000   It is mainly per folio Cost     Digitization Vs Microform Both have its advantages & disadvantages
  19. 19. Descriptive Cataloguing for manuscripts sampada jadhav <ul><li>ALA Glossary of terms </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive Cataloguing </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; That Place of the process of cataloguing which concerns itself with the identification & description of book.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>C.D.Needham </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Descriptive Cataloguing is concerned with the information given in the body of entry as distinct from heading “ </li></ul><ul><li>  Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>  To Assist in the choice of document by providing subject level of the contents </li></ul><ul><li>  Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Subject of Description and their order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Author </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent of Description </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>AACR II Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical meta data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  DCMI Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Creator </li></ul><ul><li>Subject </li></ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Publisher </li></ul><ul><li>Source </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Relation </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Dublin Core Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instantion </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Digitization of manuscripts as a preservation technique   Vivek Patkar <ul><li>Manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>It includes handwritten Composition on Paper,bark, Cloth, Metal, Palm Leaf or any </li></ul><ul><li>other dating back 75 years </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  Preservation Process </li></ul><ul><li>  preservation of manuscripts, books, maps,periodicals,photographs,newspaper register is in the format of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restoration -Paper Form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microfilming - Microfilm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digitization-  CD/DVD Rom </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Purpose 1. Making Copy of original in different medium   2. Digitization for discovery -scanning &OCR for keyword search  creating an index of terms for displaying the corresponding pages    3. Digitization for delivery- Print on demand     4. For reading-Pleasant format, numbered pages, navigation to individual pages or chapters.
  23. 23. For Research <ul><li>Digitization of documents helps in enhancing research. some of these tools can be useful for the same. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indexing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictionary Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive search Schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine Manipulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey Data files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Census Records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite Imageries </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Advantages of digital material 1 . Storage Economy 2 . Simultaneous Multiple Accessiblity 3 . Wider Dissemination 4 . Hyper linking to the related material 5 . Scaled up Security 6 . Archival Facilitation 7 . Full text search facility    
  25. 25. Digitization Plan <ul><ul><li>Material Selection & purpose (relevance, Physical Condition, Copyright Clearance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume & processing work estimation (paper size distribution,unbinding, Cleaning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Execution Options Evaluation ( in house Efforts Outsourcing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration with existing software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new services & practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sustainability (life Cycle modeling) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>material selection digitization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniqueness </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>digitization requirements </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>  computer </li></ul><ul><li>  scanner </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning </li></ul><ul><li>  Provides raster image </li></ul><ul><li>Raster image can be converted to vector form </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Digitization process elements </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Supervision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image cleaning & processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indexing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>retrieval Scheme </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>scanning process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adjust the light meter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>place on photographic copy bed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>take same shots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>check the color,clarity &sharpness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if required edit an image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tagging & numbering  of images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store it in desired computer file format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>embedding related technical subject metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collecting all images composing & saving (cd/DVD,Hard Disk,e book reader) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium of the original </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>View Characteristics of the original </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  Use of OCR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>converting printed or handwritten Characters to aacr II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image Enhancement -DE securing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desk pecking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  Digital Preservation issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Non Availability of Compatible Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrambling Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter relations are Disrupted </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Conclusion      <ul><li>workshop was concluded by Mr.B.V.Naik, ex hod of history department </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Mr Naik shared his experience with librarians and his affiliations with raja ram mohan roy library foundation. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>According to him, librarian should be always ready to help the users in finding out the information & they should use  new technologies to help the users. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Thank You

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