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Speech Compression Uncompressed audio data rates
• Recommended Reading: J. Harrington and S. • Voice: 8000samples/sec, 8bits/sample,
Cassidy, “Techniques in Speech Acoustics”, mono
Kluwer, 1999
= 64000bits/sec (64kbps)
• Contents
• CD: 44100samples/sec, 16bits/sample,
– Uncompressed audio data rates
stereo
– ADPCM
– SBADPCM
=1411200bits/sec (~1.5Mbps)
– LPC
ADPCM (Adaptive Differential PCM) ADPCM
• Uses the statistical properties of human speech (=> not Measured Transmitted
compatible with fax/modem signals) value value
• Makes a prediction about the size of the next sample, based Adaptive
on previous info quantiser

• Transmitter then sends only the difference between real
value and predicted value
Predictor
• Receiver uses the same prediction algorithm, together with
the differences to reconstruct the speech data
• Enables the data rate to be reduced to 32kbps
• Used on international telephone links
• Specified in G.721, G.722, G.723, G.726, G.727
SBAPDCM (Subband ADPCM) SBADPCM
• Given 64kbps: ADPCM could produce Upper subband
ADPCM encoder
better than toll voice quality (eg radio)
Input 47KHz 16kbps
MUX
• Subbands are 04kHz (given 48kbps), 4 filters
7kHz (given 16kbps) Lower subband
ADPCM encoder
• Low band contains more audio energy, high 50Hz4KHz 48kbps
band contains intelligibility info.
• Standardised in G.722 Analogue Digital signal
signal in out
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2.
Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) LPC
• Introduced in the 1960s • coefficients (‘a’s) correspond to those of a vocal
• nth signal sample is represented as a linear tract filter and the error signal (‘e’) corresponds to
combination of the previous p samples, plus a a source signal
residual representing the prediction error: • Source signal will approximate either a voiced
signal (which looks like a series of impulses) or a
x(n) = a1x(n1) + a2x(n2) + … + apx(np) + e(n)
white noise source
• So, LPC involves “exciting” a source signal with a
• If the error (‘e’) is small enough, we can just
transmit the coefficients (‘a’s) vocal tract filter
Impulses and Filters LPC – Autocorrelation
• Minimise the error signal by choosing optimal
coefficients (‘a’s)
• Use the autocorrelation criteria (aka root mean
squared criterion):
for 1<=j<=p,
where R is the autocorrelation of x(n) defined as
R(i) = E[x(n)x(ni)]
LPC – Solving the autocorrelation
LPC
formula
• In matrix form the equation can be written as • Used in:
R*a=r
– GSM (Groupe Speciale Mobile) (Residual
where the autocorrelation matrix R is a symmetric Toeplitz Pulse ExcitedLPC) (13kbps)
matrix with elements ri,j = R(i  j), vector r is the
autocorrelation vector rj = R(j), and vector a is the – LDCELP (LowDelay Code Excited Linear
parameter vector of ai Prediction) (G.728) (16kbps)
• An algorithm by N. Levinson (proposed in 1947) and – CSACELP (Conjugate StructureAlgebraic
modified by J. Durbin (in 1959) recursively calculates the CELP) (G.729) (8kbps)
solution to the Toeplitz matrix.
• GSM coder uses an integer version of the Schur recursion – MPMLQ (Multi Pulse – Maximum Likelihood
(1917) Quantisation) (G.723.1) (6.3kbps)…
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