A Subordinating Conjunction (sometimes
called a dependent word or subordinator)
comes at the beginning of a Subordinate (or
Dependent) Clause and establishes the
relationship between the dependent clause and
the rest of the sentence. It also turns the clause
into something that depends on the rest of the
sentence for its meaning.
Notice that some of the subordinating
conjunctions in the table below —
after, before, since — are also
prepositions, but as subordinators they are
being used to introduce a clause and to
subordinate the following clause to the
independent element in the sentence.
Common Subordinating Conjunctions
in order that
as long as
The clock face doesn’t tell us if it is
before or after midday.
If it’s before midday and p.m. for after
When we reach an hour after the middle
of the day, we start counting again at 1.
Telling the Time
When we write down or say the time we
use many ways.
If it is exactly on the hour we say o’clock
(of the clock).
Sometimes we say that part of an hour or
how many minutes have passed since the last
hour, how long before the next hour.
In this section we look at different ways of
writing times for example, ‘7:45’ is the same time as
‘quarter to eight’ or 15 minutes to 8.
On a clock face, this can be represented as
Also remember that
one hour = 60 minutes
half an hour = 30 minutes
quarter of an hour = 15 minutes
three quarter of an hour = 45 minutes
we use "past" to say times after the hour
until half past, or 30 minutes past the hour.
"to" to say times before the hour from 31
minutes until the full hour.
Be careful! In English we use at night
NOT in the night
a quarter past
a quarter to
This is a 12-hour clock.
When we reach an hour after the
middle of the day, we start counting again
at 1. The clock face doesn’t tell us if it is
before or after midday. We use
a.m. (ante meridiem) if it’s before midday.
p.m. (post meridiem) for after midday.
An easier, neater way to record the
time is the 24-hour clock. We carry on
counting the hours so that
1.00 p.m. becomes 13:00,
2 p.m. becomes 14:00 and so on.
9 o’clock a.m. ___________________
7.15 p.m. _______________________
half past 3 p.m. __________________
quarter past 7 a.m. _______________
20 past 5 p.m. ___________________
quarter to 8 p.m. _________________
12 noon _______________________
10:30 a.m. ______________________
9:30 a.m. _______________________
5 to 11 p.m. _____________________
k) 20 to 5 a.m. ___________________
l) 25 past 6 p.m. __________________
m) 10 to 7 a.m. ___________________
n) 10 past 7 a.m. __________________
o) 9.45 p.m. ______________________
p) 1 minute to midnight ___________
q) 1 minute past midnight __________
r) quarter to 1 a.m. ________________
s) past 1 p.m. _____________________
t) 1 minute past 8 p.m. _____________
15:20 or 18.55 or
3.20 p.m. 6.55 p.m.
16:38 or 20:15 or
4.38 p.m. 8.15 p.m.