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Ic voltage regulators
 

Ic voltage regulators

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linear integrated circuits-specialised IC and applications-btech semester five

linear integrated circuits-specialised IC and applications-btech semester five

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    Ic voltage regulators Ic voltage regulators Presentation Transcript

    • By
      Anita a thattil
      S5 ec alpha
      Rajagiri school of engineering,kakkanad
      IC VOLTAGE REGULATORS
    • INTRODUCTION
      Integrated ICs with improved capabilities are appearing in an ever increasing numbers.
      Often ,the use of specialized IC produces a simpler and more accurate circuits.
      Examples: MF5(National ‘s switched capacitor filter), SE/NE 565(Signetics’Phase locked loop-PLL) , timer SE/NE 555 etc
      Applications of specialized ICs:
      *universal filters
      *timers
      *Phase locked loop(PLL)
      *power amplifiers
      *voltage regulators
      *switching regulators
      *voltage references
    • Topics to be dealt
      78XX series
      79XX series
      317 variable regulators
      1723 switching regulators
    • IC Voltage Regulators
      4
      • Voltage regulator: is a circuit that supplies constant voltage regardless of changes in the load current.
      • Advantages of IC voltage regulator:
      inexpensive,versatile,provides current /voltage boosting, internal short circuit current limiting, thermal shutdown, floating operation for high voltage applications.
      Classification of IC voltage regulators:
      • There are basically two kinds of IC voltage regulators:
      • Multi-pin type, e.g. LM723C
      • 3-pin type, e.g. 78/79XX
      • Multi-pin regulators are less popular but they provide the greatest flexibility and produce the highest quality voltage regulation
      • 3-pin types make regulator circuit design simple
    • Types of IC voltage regulators:
      • Fixed output voltage regulators:positive fixed output regulator(78XX series) and negative fixed output regulator(79XX series)
      • Adjustable output voltage regulators: positive (LM317) and negative(LM337)
      • Switching regulators:motorola ‘s MC1723
      • NOTE: MC1723 is a general purpose regulator ;it can be used in many ways as a fixed positive or negative output voltage regulator, variable output voltage regulator or as a switching regulator.Due to its flexibility it has become as a standard type in the electronics industry.
    • Basic power supply
      • Transformer ;steps down high voltage AC mains to low voltage AC.
      • Rectifier:converts AC to DC, but the DC output is varying
      • Filter: smooths the DC from varying greatly to a small ripple.
      • Regulator : eliminates ripple by setting DC output to a fixed voltage
    • Need for regulation
      • Without stable potentials, circuit performance degrades and if the variations are large enough the components may get destroyed.
      • In order to avoid this regulation is used
    • Performance parameters of voltage regulators
      • Line or input regulation:defined as a change in output voltage for a change in input voltage
      • Load regulation: defined as the change in output voltage for a change in load current.
      • Temperature stability or average temperature coefficient of output voltage(TCVO): defined as the change inoutput voltage per unit change intemperature and expressed in millivolts per degree celsius.
      • Ripple rejection: is the measure of regulator ‘s ability to reject ripple voltages.it is usually expressed in decibels.
      • Quiescent current Iq : current that flows into the regulator and does not include current drawn by load or internal resistor networks.
      • The smaller the value of these performance parameters ,the better the regulator.
    • FIXED VOLTAGE REGULATORa)positive voltage regulator
      Ci
      Co
      The 78XX voltage regulators
      Fig shows the connection diagram of 78XX series
      Proper operation requires a common ground between the input and output voltages.
      The difference between the input and output voltages(Vin- Vout) called dropout voltage must be 2V even during low point in the input ripple voltage.
      Capacitor Ci, is required if the regulator is located an appreciable distance from a power supply filter. Even though Co is not required, it may be used to improve the transient response of the regulator.
    • Basic building block of +ve regulators
    • 7805 as current source
      • The 7800 regulators can also be employed as current sources. A typical connection diagram of 7805 IC as a 0.5 A current source is depicted in figure.
      • The current supplied to the load is given as
      IL= (VR/ R )+ IQ
      when Iq is quiescent current in amperes (4.3 m A typically for the 7805 IC)
      • In figure, VR= V23= 5 V and R = 10 ohms
      So IL= 5/10 = 0.5A
      • The output voltage with respect to
      ground is
      VOUT= VR+ VL
      • The load resistance, RL= 10 Ohms,
      therefore VL= 5 V Thus
      Vout= VR+ VL= 5 + 5 = 10 V
      • Minimum input voltage required,
      Vin = Vout + dropout voltage = 10 + 2=12V
    • 78XX basic features
      • Features
      • 3 terminal positive voltage regulator with seven voltage options
      • High Output Current - typically 1.5A
      • Short circuit current limit - 750mA at 5v
      • Internal thermal overload protection
      • Low quiescent current - 6mA
      • Max input voltage = 35v
      • Minimum Input Voltage = Vout + 2.5
    • b)Negative voltage regulators
      •       Negative voltage regulator IC's are available in 79XX series.
      • These IC's are similar to the 78 series, but operating on negative voltage, and providing a regulated negative output voltage.
      • The capacitors connected at the input
      and output sides are used to provide
      additional filter circuits of regulator circuits.
    • Features of 79XX
      • Same as that of 78XX series except that 79XX series are negative regulators
      • They are available in same seven voltage options with two extra voltage options,-2V and -5.2V
      • As shown in the figure
    • ADJUSTABLE VOLTAGE REGULATOR
      • Adjustable voltage regulators are those who voltage can be varied and utilized.
      • Advantages of adjustable voltage regulators:
      • * improved system performance
      • * improved overload protection
      • *improved system reliability
      • Example: LM317
    • ADJUSTABLE VOLTAGE REGULATORa)positive adjustable regulators-LM317
      The LM317 is a three terminal positive voltage regulator, which can be oper­ated with the output voltage regulated at any setting over the range of 1.2 V to 57 V.
      The three terminals are Vin,Vout and ADJUSTMENT(ADJ).
    • Circuit of LM317
      Resistors Rx and R2 set the output to any desired voltage over the adjustment range (1.2 to 57 V)
      When configured as shown in figure LM317 develops a nominal voltage of 1.25V referred to as reference voltage Vrefbetween output and adjustment terminal.
      This reference voltage is impressed across resistorR1,since voltage is constant current I is also constant
      Since R1 sets current I its called current set or program resistor
    • Referring to figure,the output voltage Vo is
      Vo = R1 + R2 (I1 +Iadj)………….(1)
      Where I1= Vref/R1……….(2)
      R1 =current set resistor
      R2 =output set resistor
      Iadj= adjustment pin current
      Substituting (2) in (1) we get :Vout = VREF [1+ R2/R1] + IADJR2
      where VREF = 1.25 V, the reference voltage between the output and adjustment terminals
      the current IADJ is very small (100 micro Amperes) and constant. So the voltage drop across R2 due to IADJ is also very small and can be neglected so that equation  can be written as
      Vout = 1.25 [1+ R2/R1]
      The current set resistor Rx is usually 240 Ohms, and to achieve good load regulation it should be tied directly to the output of the regulator rather than near the load.
      The load regulation is 0.1 percent while the line regulation is 0.01 percent per volt.
    • LM317 with capacitors,protection diodes
      No capacitors are needed unless LM317 is situated far from the power supply filter capacitors in which case a bypass capacitor Ci is used.
      Output capacitor Co can be added to improve the transient response.
      When external capacitors are used protection diodes are also used to prevent capacitors from discharging through low current points into the regulator.
    • b)Adjustable negative voltage regulators-LM337
      • The LM337 series of voltage regulators are a complement of LM317 series.
      • They are negative adjustable voltage regulators
      • These negative voltage regulators are available in the same voltage and current options as the positive adjustable voltage regulator LM317.
    • Theory of switching regulators
      • A basic switching regulator consists of four major components:
      • Voltage source Vin
      • Switch S1
      • Pulse generator Vpulse
      • Filter F1
      • Voltage source: maybe dc supply,battery,unregulated or regulated supply
      *Vin must supply required output power
      *it must be large enough to supply sufficient dynamic range
      *it may be required to store energy for a specified period of time during power failures.
      Switch S1: is a transistor or thyristor connected as a power switch and is operated in saturated mode.The pulse generator output alternatively turns the switch on and off.
      Pulse generator Vpulse: produces an asymmetrical square wave varying in either frequency or pulse width called frequency modulation or pulse width modulation. Frequency range is around 20khz.
      *duty cycle:is the ratio of on time ton to the period T of the pulse waveform.
      Duty cycle =ton ==ton =ton f
      t0n + toffT
      • Filter: converts the pulse waveform from output of the switch into a dc voltage.
      • Since this switching mechanism allows the conversion similar to transformers, the switching regulator is referred to as dc transformer.
      • Vo is expressed as ;
      • Vo = ton*Vin
      • T
      • Case 1: if time period T is constant,V0 is directly proportional to the on time ton , for a given value of Vin. This method of changing the output voltage by varying ton is called pulse width modulation
      • Case 2: if ton is held constant , output voltage is inversely proportional to the period T or directly proportional to the frequency of the pulse waveform . This method of varying the output voltage is called frequency modulation
    • Switching regulator
      • In switching regulator,the transistor acts as a switch.
      • When the transistor is off(switch is open) , no current flows,therefore no power dissapation.
      • When the transistor is on,(switch is closed), high current flows but Vce becomes low and therefore power dissapation is less.
      • Basic circuit of switching regulator
      • Bridge rectifier-switch-transformer-rectifier
      • Bridge rectifier converts ac input signal to unregulated dc
      • Switch : closed implies currrent is allowed to flow
      • open implies no current is allowed to flow
      • Transformer: the output of the switching network is coupled to the rectifier through the transformer
      • Rectifier: provides final rectification and smoothing of the dc output
      • Features
      • Delivers load current of about 150mA without an external pass transistor.
      • Output voltage range 3Vdc to 37 Vdc
      • .01%line regulation
      • .03%load regulation
    • MC1723
      • The diagram shows motorola’s MC1723
      • It is a general purpose regulator and can be used as fixed ,variable and switching regulator.
      • The regulator requires an external transistor and a 1mh choke.
      • To minimize its power dissipation during switching, external transistor used must be switching power transistor.
      • The 1 mH choke smooths out current pulses to the load
      • Capacitor c holds out output voltage at constant dc level.
    • THANK U