DOCTORAL TRAINING PROGRAM The Philosophy of Science Research: Epistemology and Research Paradigms AP Dr Haji Abdullah Haji Abdul Ghani COB Bilik Msyuarat Utama, Jabatan Komunikasi CAS 22 February 2010
A PhD is not merely a vague title but actually means what it implies: it is an award to an expert who has proven their scientific worth and not to someone who stayed in a tolerant group for long enough
Philosophy derives from a combination of the Greek words philos meaning love and sophia meaning wisdom . What philosophy is, or should be, is itself a philosophical question that philosophers have understood and treated differently through the ages.
Philosophy can mean the academic exploration of various questions raised by philosophers; or to the collective works of major philosophers ; it can also mean a certain critical, creative way of thinking.
Knowledge; knowledge of principles and causes; ascertained truth of facts.
Accumulated and established knowledge, which has been systematized and formulated with reference to the discovery of general truths or the operation of general laws; knowledge classified and made available in work, life, or the search for truth; comprehensive, profound, or philosophical knowledge.
"The word qualitative implies an emphasis on the qualities of entities and on processes and meanings that are not experimentally examined or measured (if measured at all) in terms of quantity, amount, intensity, or frequency. Qualitative researchers stress the socially constructed nature of reality, the intimate relationship between the researcher and what is studied, and the situational constraints that shape inquiry. Such researchers emphasize the value-laden nature of inquiry. They seek answers to questions that stress how social experience is created and given meaning. In contrast, quantitative studies emphasize the measurement and analysis of causal relationships between variables, not processes. Proponents of such studies claim that their work is done from within a value-free framework" (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000, p. 8).
handled numerically. Usually contrasted (too sharply) with qualitative variables and research. Many research designs lend themselves well to collecting both quantitative and qualitative data, and many variables can be handled either qualitatively or quantitatively. For example, naturalistic observations can give rise to either or both kinds of data. Interactions can be counted and timed with a stopwatch or they can be interpreted more holistically.
When speaking of kinds of research, qualitative refers to studies of subjects that are hard to quantify, such as art history. The term qualitative research tends to be a residual category for almost any kind of non-quantitative research. [ … ] The qualitative-quantitative distinction is often overdrawn. It is difficult to avoid quantitative elements in the most qualitative subject matter. For examples, "The painter entered his 'blue period' in the 1890s." And qualitative components are crucial to most good quantitative research, which begins with theories, concepts, and constructs.
Concerned with the study of being , of reality in its most fundamental and comprehensive forms.
The theory of objects and their ties . The unfolding of ontology provides criteria for distinguishing various types of objects (concrete and abstract, existent and non-existent, real and ideal, independent and dependent) and their ties (relations, dependences and predication).
In epistemology a common definition of knowledge is that it consist of justified true belief. For most philosophical history, knowledge was taken to mean a belief that was justified as true to an absolute certainty. Any less justified beliefs were called mere “ probable opinion ” . To be a knowledge, a belief has to have some positive epistemic feature; it can ’ t be arbitrary or random or irrational.
Classical Empiricism : Aristotle argued that all form of knowing come from induction.
Modern Empiricism : All knowledge must be attained by our consciousness through internal and external sensations. (David Hume, John Locke and George Berkeley)
Radical Empiricism : All human knowledge is purely empirical. (William James)
Na ï ve Empiricism : Our ideas and theories need to be tested against reality and not be affected by preconseived notions.
Constructive Empiricism : According to this view of science coined by Bas Van Fraassen (The Scientific Image, 1980), we should only ask that theories accurately describe observable parts of the world. Theories that meet these requirements are considered “ empirically adequate ” . If a theory become established, it should be accepted. What that means is the theory is believed to be empirically accurate, use to solve further problem, and use to extend or refine the theory.
Term used to describe a state of orthodoxy, the suspension of actions or opinions in favor of obedience to the mandate or conventions of one ’ s peer group. The old saying expresses this well : When in Rome, do as the Roman do. By definition, conformism present the antithesis both of creativity and of innovative leadership and hence oppose change or progress
Immediate apprehension by mind without reasoning. The belief that primary truths and principles especially of ethics and metaphysics are known directly by intuition.
The knowing of something without prior knowledge or the use of reason. All stands revealed the hearts, the motives, the causes all events. Able to sense the invisible and the impalatable. Prophets are often intuitive. Acquire through Spiritual Intelligence (SQ)
The kind of knowledge that is given by God to man through direct revelation. Unveils the mystery of Being and Existence and reveals the true relationship between man ’ s self and his Lord, and since for man such knowledge pertains to the ultimate purpose of knowing, it follows that knowledge of its prerequisites become the basis and essential foundation for the knowledge of the second kind (knowledge of science).
(source : Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas)
Types of Methodology Logical Thinking -- The Source of Methodology Logical Knowledge Validation Conceptual (Tasdiq) (Tasawur) Argumentation Proposition (Al-Qadiayah) (Muhajjah) Comparison/ Deduction Conclusion/ Induction (Al-Qias) (Al-Istiqra’) Conditional Unconditional Complete Induction Limited Induction (Al-syartiah) (Al-hamliah) (Al-Istiqra’ al-Tamn) (Al-Istiqra’ Naqis) Overview of Logical Knowledge (Al-Istiqra’ Riyadi) (Al-Istiqra’ ilmii) Precise Definition (Ta’rif bil hadd) Connotative Definition (Ta’rif bil Rasm)
Observations General Understanding/ Conclusion Observed phenomenon Conclusion/ Understanding from specific observation Conclusion/ Understanding Based on general rules/ understanding
Deductive Methodology – What is it? Types of Methodology
Make an inference to explain specific observed phenomenon based
on existing general understanding, rules or knowledge
Originated from the Latin words “de” ( From) and
“ decere” (Lead towards)
Syllogism (Al-qias) – Introduced by Aristotle (384~322BC)
Classic logical Knowledge
General Understanding/ Conclusion Observed phenomenon Conclusion/ Understanding Based on general rules/ understanding
Types of Methodology Deductive Methodology – Process
Move from General understanding (postulate & Axiom) as
Premise Specifics phenomenon
Postulate – Something that believe to be true but not proven
(without empirical study or observation)
Axiom – Formal rule or principle that generally to be true,
dominated in Mathematics
Minor Premise + Major Premise Conclusion
(Muqaddimah al-Sughra) (Muqaddimah al Kubra) (Natijah) All vegetables is nutritious Nutrition is good for health All Vegetables is good for health (Muqaddimah al-Sughra (Muqaddimah al Kubra) (Natijah) + =
Inductive Methodology - Definition Types of Methodology
Generalizing a knowledge, understanding, conclusion from the
understanding of specifics observation to a general rules or
knowledge with the elements of probability
Modern Logical Knowledge based on empirical study
Types of Induction: Completed (al-istiqra’ tamn) & Limited (al-Istiqra’ Naqis)
Observations General Understanding/ Conclusion Conclusion/ Understanding from specific observation
Science starts from problems. Hypotheses are formed as solution to problems.
Falsificationist seeks ways to continue rigorous tests to falsify a certain theory after which a stronger theory emerges.
Aristotle ’ s theory being taken over by Newton ’ s theory. Newton ’ s theory was able to account for more issues which Aristotle ’ s theories did not mention. This was followed by Einstein ’ s theory which proved to be a challenge to falsify for current modern physicists.
There is no truth, only the current most correct answer.
Theory-dependence of observation and the fallibility of falsifications
Theory acceptance is always tentative (for now)
Theory rejection is decisive (forever)
Note that observation might be wrong!
Thus many instances whereby rejections of observation statements and the retention of the theories they clash
Falsificationism inadequate on historial grounds
Theories may have been rejected due to historical grounds. Example: Newton ’ s gravitational theory was falsified by observation of the moon ’ s orbit. Only after 50 years that this is deflected to other causes than Newton ’ s theory.
Correspondence Theory Of Truth : Truth is correspondence with objective reality. Thus, a sentence is said to be true just in case it express a state of affair in the world. Eg. “ Snow is white is true ” .
The Coherence Theory : Truth is coherence with some specified set of sentences or, more often, of beliefs. For example, one of a person ’ s belief is true just in case it is coherent with all or most of her other beliefs.
Pragmatic Theory Of Truth : Based on the foundation of the principle of evolutionism. An idea can only be considered true if posses practical value or vital benefits. Pragmatism believed “ absolute truth do not exist ” (Charles Sanders Pierce, William James). Nature of truth statement by working hypothesis, focus on similarities and differences.
Subjective truth are those with which we are most intimately acquainted. Metaphysical subjectivism holds that all we have are such truths. That is, that all we can know about are one way or another, our own subjective experiences. This view does not reject realism. But at least it claim that we cannot have direct knowledge of the real world.
Objective truth are suppose to be one way to be independent of our subjective beliefs and tastes. Such truth would subsist not in the mind but in the external object.
Relative truths are statements or propositions that are true only relative to some standard or convention or point-of-view. Everyone agrees that the truth or falsify of some statements is relative: The fork is to the left of the spoon depends on where one stands. Relativism entails that what is true varies across cultures and eras.
Absolute truths are statement or propositions that are taken to be true for all cultures and eras. Example: for Muslim, Allah is great expression an absolute truth; for economist, that the law of supply and demand determine the value of any consumable in the market economy is true in all situations.
Absolutism in particular domain of thought is the view that all statements in that domain are either absolute true or absolute false: none is true for some cultures or eras while false for other cultures or eras. Example “ Abortion is wrong ” or “ Charity is good ” .
The doubt (shakk), conjecture and guess disputation and contention, inclination of mind or soul towards natural desire (hawa), are all generally considered blameworthy-the more so when applied to an masquerading as knowledge. We must take note of the significance that, in the case of Western culture and civilisation, and with reference to sociology of knowledge, the West defined knowledge in terms of the effort of science as control of nature and society. ( Syed Naquib Al-Attas )
There are situations and issues which do not require thinking. One does not need to conduct lengthy experiment and engage in extensive study to prove something that is plainly obvious from every day experience.
According to Al-Ghazali, doubt is the first stage of certainty (yaqin). His concept of doubt is not based on scepticism but more on methodological. When the doubt is clear, certainty will emerge.