Brief on education Ecuador
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Brief on education Ecuador Brief on education Ecuador Document Transcript

  • COUNTRY PAPER ECUADOR A brief on education Prepared by:Ana María Nuñez February 2011
  • IntroductionThe following paper presents a general perspective regarding relevant issues oneducation in Ecuador. Through the following pages, the reader will be aware ofgeneral information on Ecuador, developments in education, and some of thechallenges & reforms that have been built upon them.Demographic, Economic and Socio-Cultural Situationsa. General Information:The republic of Ecuador is located in South America, limits to the north withColombia, south and east to Peru and west to the Pacific Ocean. Its land area is of276,840 sq km, and a total area of 283,560 sq km. For a better understanding of itsposition in the world, the maps above shows –in the lest- its location in SouthAmerica and –in the right- the provincial division of the country.Major Physical Features.-Ecuador has 4 regions, divided in 24 provinces on the Coast region, the highlands(Sierra), the Amazon basin and the Galapagos. 2
  • Ecuador has a total of 966 km (2006) of railways, of them 8,164 km are paved highways and 35,033 km (2002) unpaved. There are 1,500 km of waterways (most inaccessible). Ports and harbors are located in Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto Bolivar. There are 406 airports. b. Demographic Situation According to the national institute of statistics, Ecuador has a population of 14.204.900 for 2010 at an annual growth rate of 1,44%. Table 1 shows Ecuador’s annual growth rate from 2002 to 2009. Table 1.- 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009POPULAT. 12 479 924 12 660 728 12 842 578 13 026 891 13 215 089 13 408 270 13 605 485 13 805 095 14 005 449G. Rate% - 1.45 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.46 1.47 1.47 1.45 Source: INEC (National institute of statistics) Jan 2011. Chart 1.- Source: Chart 1 presents the world’s population growth rates divided by region. 3
  • Urban areas in Ecuador are provided with basic services, such as water, electricenergy and sanitary services. Approximately, 60% of the population is concentratedon these areas. The remaining 40% is distributed in rural areas, where some servicesand medical attention do not exist.Table 2 shows the distribution of Urban and Rural Population in Ecuador.Table 2. 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010URBAN RURAL URBAN RURAL URBAN RURAL URBAN RURAL AREA AREA Area area Area Area Area area Area Area URBANA RURAL 64,00% 36,00% 64,58% 35,42% 65,00% 35,00% 65,70% 34,30% 66,00% 34,00% 8.580.090 4.828.180 8.785.745 4.819.740 8.993.796 4.811.299 9.202.590 4.802.859 9.410.481 4.794.419 13.408.270,00 13.605.485,00 13.805.095,00 14.005.449,00 14.204.900,00As the table shows, it can be observed that the population has been migrating tourban areas at a slow increase of 2% in the last 4 years. The reason for this migrationis to be able to access to better quality of lives in large cities.Population density according to the word bank is of 48,7 per square km.c. Economic Situation:Regarding the Atlas method1, Ecuador is classified as a lower middle-income countryas its GNI is of $3970. Table 3 shows the evolution of the GDP since 2005.Table 3.-Source: INEC (National institute of statistics) Jan 2011.As the table shows, GDP has grown 15% since 2005, by calculating (2009-2005)/2005. However, the average rate of growth is 2,85% since 2005.1 Low income $995 or less, lower middle income $996 - $3945; upper middle income $3946-$12,915; high income $ 12,916 or more. 4
  • Components of GDPPrimary SectorThe primary sector is composed of those activities of directextraction from nature with no transformation. It isprimarily composed of agricultural products such as bananas,coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep,pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp; and mining exploitationwhich includes petroleum and natural gas extraction.On 2006, according to the central bank of Ecuador agriculture accounted for 8% ofthe GDP, and the primary sector accounts for 22% of the total GDP.Table 4 shows the evolution of the primary sector since 2002 to 2006.Table 4.-Secondary SectorRepresents the activities of both: handcrafted goods and manufacturing industries.Table 5.-Table 5 excludes petroleum refining.On 2006, according to the Central Bank of Ecuador the secondary sector accountedfor 10% of the GDP. (Excluding oil refining).Tertiary SectorRepresents services accounts for 68% of GDP.Other relevant economic data.- 5
  • The annual Inflation Rate is 4,3% (2010).Unemployment Rate 7% of total labour force (2008 World bank)Local currency: USD Dollars.d. Socio-Cultural Situation - Illiteracy Rate 8% Male: 92% over 15 years (2008) Female: 91% over 15 years (2008) Total 92% - Infant Mortality Rate Per 1000 live births 20 per 1,000 live births (2010) - Life expectancy at birth: 75 years (2008) - Number of official languages: Two - Name of official language: Spanish & quechua - Names of principal religions: Roman Catholic 95%, others 5%. STRUCTURE OF THE EDU CATION SYSTEMe. Educational SituationNational educative system in Ecuador comprises two sub-systems: Scholar and non-scholar. Scholar education comprises regular education, compensatory education (forthose who have not finished education or have not accessed on a regular basis) andspecial education. Non-scholar sub-system strives for improving cultural andprofessional education through private and public efforts.Ecuadorian regular education has the following levels: Preprimary, Primary andSecondary level comprising basic, and specialized. Primary education and basicsecondary level is compulsory and comprises 10 years: first to seventh grades ofprimary education, and 3 years of secondary education. 6
  • Education structure from preprimary to secondary education 1st pre primary education not compulsory 1st to sixth grade: Compulsory education primary –BGE- 7th to 10th grade: Compulsory education (secondary) 11th to 12th: not compulsory (diversified/technical education)After finishing the secondary education, the student has to submit examinations thatwill guarantee he/she has achieved the level required by the ministry of education forthe required education level.At the school and high school levels, the ministry of education is a key componentfor the development of education nationwide; it has executed several actions tosupport improvements in education whose objectives are aligned to the nationaldevelopment plan.An example can be the “escuelas unidocentes” (One teacher school), which intend toimprove quality of the education supply in rural areas. Nationwide, there are otherprograms developed by diverse ministries, oriented to environmental preservation,sexual education, and health concerns. Developments have also been achieved inpedagogy as an example; study cases are applied to promote critical thinking fromstudents where the student becomes part of the process of learning.To improve quality in the tertiary level a national committee of accreditation has beendesigned. This committee ensures universities comply for legal requirements andcurriculum development. Up to date only few universities have been accredited.After the approval of the superior education law on 2010, in 2 years, 60% of alluniversity teachers must be enrolled and have a master’s degree. The law alsocontemplates an examination of students upon they finish their studies. If studentsscore low grades on this examination, the degree will be closed for poor qualityresults. 7
  • 1. Coverage of School Age Population.- Level Total School Age Gross Enrolment Percentage in Enrolment Population Rate % (2009) Private Schools Pre-Primary 290,000 3 to 5 131 27% Primary 1,717,000 6 to 11 117 18% High/Secondary 1,633,000 12 to 17 81 12% Tertiary - 18 and 42 35% aboveSource: UNESCO’s Institute of Statistics. Elaborated by: The author.2. Rate of Growth of Enrolment During Past Five Years Period Level of Education Average Annual Rate of Growth (2005 – 2009) Pre-Primary 7,18% Primary 1,03% High/Secondary 24,18% Tertiary2 20%Source: UNESCO’s Institute of Statistics. Elaborated by: The author. 3. Teacher Deployment Situation Level of Education Number of % Qualified Pupil/ Teacher Teachers (2009) Teachers Ratio (2009) Pre-Primary 20,011 78 19 Primary 120,064 83 17 High/Secondary 47,357 78 22 Tertiary 8,4703 80 272 Available from 2007 to 20083 2008 reference. 8
  • Source: UNESCO’s Institute of Statistics. Elaborated by: The author. DINAMEP (National council of professional improvement) is the national institution in charge of teacher training at a national level; its main objective is to improve education and services of education in provinces of the country. 4. Internal Efficiency in Primary Education (Current Two Year Period) GradesRate Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2008- - - - - - - - - - 2009Promotion 2009- - - - - - - - - - 2010 2008- 5 3 2 2 1 1 - - - 2009 2009- 5 10 10 5Repetition 2010 3 1 - - -Rate 2008- - - - - - - - - - 2009 2009-Dropout 2010 - - - - - - - - -Rate 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Note: Several data were not available. Source: UNESCO Statistics 5. Financing of Education In 2006, 73 million dollars where invested in school infrastructure. Source: 10 year education plan 2007. 9
  • 1. Total Public expenditure on education as a percentage of government expenditureis 8 % (2000).2. Total Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP/GNP is 3,9 %(2009-2010). The intention is to achieve an annual increase of 0,5% in education’sportion of the GDP until it reaches at least 6% for 2012. Level of Education Current Public Expenditure Primary (2000) 3,2 High/Secondary (2000) 6 Tertiary ---- Others ----The total amount of infrastructure investment for the year 2006 on students was of270 USD. Total investment in infrastructure accounted for 73 million.7. Current Expenditure Per Pupil as a Percentage of GDP or GNP (2009– 2010) Level of Education Expenditure Per Pupil Primary High/Secondary Tertiary Othersa) Curriculum developmentSchools and high school education.-The National Plan for Environmental Education: Co-preparation with the Ministry ofEnvironment the National Plan for Environmental Education for Basic and HighSchool education. This program motivates persons to find solutions toenvironmental problems and motivates individuals to defend natural resources andmanage waste. 10
  • National Welfare Plan: This is a program where teachers, students, parents’community members, and authorities are integrated in a positive creative system. Itaims to orient the society people against the prevention of improper use of drugs.Institutionalization of sex education: This was a perceived need at all levels ofeducation: pregnancy is a reason for the high levels of dropouts from girls. Also, itaims to eradicate sex crimes, and reduce and treat sexually transmitted diseases.Through Ministerial Accord 403 sex education was institutionalized in the educationsystem.School for parents: This program aims to improve communication amongst themembers of the family, strengthen the values of the family, improve self esteem,prevention of violence and support children in the process of learning.International Baccalaureate Organization: Ecuador’s public education is joining theinternational education panorama included signing the Memorandum of MutualCommitments between Ecuador and the International Baccalaureate Organization(“OBI”). The 22 schools chosen are in the first training phase for implementing theprogram.b) Text book production/ distributionProviding free text books from 1st to 7th grades of Basic general education.The ministry of education provided free textbooks for children registered in Spanishand bilingual public schools in the Coast, Highlands and Amazon Basin Regionsystems. In average, the Ministry of education contributed with 80% of the cost ofthe books. The remaining 20% was contributed by sectional governments.c) Special programmes for the Disadvantaged and poor.According to the WTO, there are 161 million persons with disabilities from which 37million are blind and 124 million persons are partially blind. At least 6 million ofthem are scholar age children and 80% of them live in developing countries. Fromthese children, less than 10% are receiving education. A girl with visual disabilityreceives less attention and is highly more discriminated than a boy. 11
  • In Ecuador, 40% of the population lives in rural areas, therefore, programs have beendeveloped to guarantee equal access to education for this children.National Plan for Education Inclusion:Validation and forming inclusive policies for the disadvantaged, which allowincorporation of all boys, girls and young people into a system with fair conditions.Specialized training workshops for educators are given on an annual basis in topicssuch as: “Response to Educational Needs of Gifted Children,” “AlternateCommunications System for Deaf and Blind Students” and “Education for theDeaf.”Escuelas unidocentes (one teacher schools):This schools aim to reach a percentage of students who have difficulty in accessingschools and provide these children -from rural areas- with mini libraries, facilities,computers, tools for farming and also, lodging for the teacher. This programsupports the teacher with continuous technical assistance. The basic areas of studiesare: mathematics, language and communication, social studies, and natural science.Teachers from these schools are required to meet periodically to share experiences,establish compromises and to implement innovation in pedagogy of education.For supporting the education in rural areas, the national council of rural education isalso implementing 2 projects: one, oriented to social and productive development andthe second, to the communitarian curriculum for general basic education.d) Efforts for education for all programmesIn order to achieve the goals of making basic education universal, the followingcomplementary strategies have developed:4a. Incentives for voluntary retirement for teachers and termination of night schoolteachers.4 Ten year education plan, 2007. 12
  • b. Breaking down items and allotments to teachers in rural, border and marginalareas.c. Incorporation of new teachers, ensuring their quality through a registry of eligiblecandidates. Persons who wish to enter the teaching profession as teachers mustregister and pass aptitude tests prior to the process handled by the commissions onentries and changes. In reference to these three, there has been a re-evaluation of the teaching profession, professional development, working conditions and quality of life. For the voluntarily retirement of senior teachers, the government offered and paid five basic monthly wages to $12,000 through Executive Decree 1563 on June 29, 2006. Through this decree, persons who wish to enter the teaching profession as teachers must register and pass aptitude tests prior to the process handled by the commissions on entries and changes.d. Elimination of barriers to entry into the education system through a free text bookcampaign and the elimination of the $25 payment. The contribution from families to schools of USD 25 has been eliminated by the government for the purpose of eliminating barriers to public education and advance towards free public school education. This contribution was eliminated from 1st to 7th grades.e. Making the first year of Basic General Education (“BGE”) universal. As a result of the program, in 2006 the increase in public school registrations in 2006 was 28.9% in the Coast system. National gross enrolment on basic education is 117% for 2009. 13
  • e) Inspection and Supervision services for Quality improvementSupervision is in charge of the provincial council of education, who manages thework of provincial supervisors. Supervision is a task of professional assessment andcontrol over the assigned educational institutions, and will always take into accountthe opinions of the communities. To be a supervisor, it is fundamental to havespecialized training, and live in the working area assigned.To ensure quality a national evaluation system has been implemented, and socialreporting of the education system.f) Examination systemsThe intention is to perform a national testing system that includes measurement ofacademic achievements, testing institutional work and teaching performance. Issues and problems of educationSome of the most relevant problems in education are the following:a. Access to education in rural areas.b. Extreme povertyc. High girls dropout in schoolsd. Lack of access to schoolse. Corruption in education 14
  • Educational reforms.-In October 2010, the new law on higher education was approved with someeducational reforms such as:Number of credits per degree.-There will be a number of credits per degree that students must comply with in orderto graduate.Full time professors.-Full time teachers in tertiary education must posses master degrees in order to bepromoted as full time teachers. The law establishes a classification of professors whoneed to comply with specific demands.Testing Systems.-The law proposes to develop a test according to every program in each university. Ina period of 5 years the students will start taking this tests and if overall they don’tscore above the required grade for a period f two years, the program/degree will beclosed.Elimination of diplomas as postgraduate degrees.-The actual tertiary education law eliminates diplomas as postgraduate degrees andonly recognizes masters and PhD’s, graduate programs. 15
  • Bibliography: 1. Observatorio de la Economía Latinoamericana- 2. INEC- 3. UNESCO - 4. Ten Year education plan. 2007. Ministry of Education of Ecuador 5. Ley orgánica de educación superior LOES. 16