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  • 1. BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED VISAKHAPATNAM INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT Submitted in partial fulfillment for the Award of degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY In Computer Science and Systems Engineering Submitted by: Anita Kandregula Akshita Kanumury 310106410003 310106410011
  • 2. Page |2 DECLARATION We Hereby certify that the work which is being presented in the report entitled ,”Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited” in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award degree of Graduation Program in bachelor degree offered by Andhra University College of Engineering, Visakhapatnam, is an authentic record of our own work. The matter is presented in this project report has not been submitted by us for the award of any other of this or any other institution.
  • 3. Page |3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The success of every project depends largely on the SELF & encouragement and guidance of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this study project. First of all I would like to thank the Management at BSNL for giving me the opportunity to do my six month project training in their esteemed organization. Internal Guide for providing me with valuable advice and endless supply of new ideas and support for this project. I would like to thank Mr. Ramesh Naidu for providing practical exposure for the project and his valuable guidance during the project work.
  • 4. Page |4 Table of Contents DECLARATION ............................................................................................................................ 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .............................................................................................................. 3 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 6 Objective of the study ............................................................................................................. 6 Methodology of the study ....................................................................................................... 6 Limitations of the study .......................................................................................................... 6 COMPANY PROFILE ................................................................................................................... 7 INTERESTING FACTS ................................................................................................................. 9 ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE OF BSNL ......................................................................... 10 THE BSNL SERVICES ................................................................................................................ 11 Basic Telephone Services ..................................................................................................... 12 Internet .................................................................................................................................. 12 ISDN ..................................................................................................................................... 12 Intelligent Network ............................................................................................................... 12 I-Net ...................................................................................................................................... 12 Leased Lines & Data-com .................................................................................................... 13 Cellular Mobile Service ........................................................................................................ 13 Wireless in Local Loop ......................................................................................................... 13 TRANSMISSION ......................................................................................................................... 14 BROADBAND ............................................................................................................................. 15 What is DSL? ........................................................................................................................ 15 Data Card .............................................................................................................................. 15 OCB EXCHANGE SYSTEM....................................................................................................... 16 Salient Features ..................................................................................................................... 16 Major Units of OCB System ................................................................................................. 16 Subscriber Connection Unit (CSN) .................................................................................. 16 Trunk & Junction Connection (SMT) ............................................................................... 16 Switching Matrix .............................................................................................................. 16 Auxiliary Equipment Control Station (SMA) ................................................................... 16 Control Unit (SMC) .......................................................................................................... 16 Operation & Maintenance Unit (SMM) ............................................................................ 17
  • 5. Page |5 MOBILE COMMUNICATION ................................................................................................... 17 GSM .............................................................................................................................................. 19 GSM NETWORK STRUCTURE................................................................................................. 21 Subscriber Identity Module................................................................................................... 21 GSM security ........................................................................................................................ 22 Base Transceiver Station (BTS)............................................................................................ 22 Broadband ............................................................................................................................. 22 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 25 BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................................................... 26
  • 6. Page |6 INTRODUCTION This project on Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL) is being prepared and presented with a view to educate the readers by bringing out the potentials of the team members. The mission of the project is that it would concentrate on conglomerated BSNL in all dimensions, so that the facts are revealed and the meaningful conclusion can be derived at the end of this project by readers, from any background. Objective of the study 1. To do a thorough analysis on the company and its ethics, norms etc. 2. To understand the culture and basis of the service provider (BSNL). 3. To throw light upon the functional areas of the company and its mutual co-operation with other departments. 4. To undertake a SWOT analysis on the company and to find out the key areas of success. 5. To inform and to educate the readers and provide them the necessary and sufficient details with examples for their better understanding. 6. To analyze the recent financial statements of the company. Methodology of the study 1. Secondary data with the help of internet, journals, magazines, newspaper etc are the basic tools for this project. 2. Primary data (unauthorized) has also been considered. 3. Apart from the data, the analysis, interpretation of the team members had played a crucial role in this project. Limitations of the study The major limitation of this project is that the primary data that have been taken place are not subject to authorization.
  • 7. Page |7 COMPANY PROFILE Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. formed in October, 2000, is World's 7th largest Telecommunications Company providing comprehensive range of telecom services in India: Wire line, CDMA mobile, GSM Mobile, Internet, Broadband, Carrier service, MPLS-VPN, VSAT, VoIP services, IN Services etc. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (known as BSNL, India Communications Corporation Limited) is a public sector communications company in India. It is the India's largest telecommunication company with 24% market share. Its headquarters are at Bharat Sanchar Bhawan, New Delhi. It has the status of Mini-ratna - a status assigned to reputed Public Sector companies in India.BSNL has installed Quality Telecom Network in the country and now focusing on improving it, expanding the network, introducing new telecom services with ICT applications in villages and wining customer's confidence. Today, it has about 47.3 million line basic telephone capacity, 4 million WLL capacity, 20.1 Million GSM Capacity, more than 37382 fixed exchanges, 18000 BTS, 287 Satellite Stations, 480196 Rkm of OFC Cable, 63730 Rkm of Microwave Network connecting 602 Districts, 7330 cities/towns and 5.5 Lakhs villages. BSNL is the only service provider, making focused efforts and planned initiatives to bridge the Rural-Urban Digital Divide ICT sector. Indian Telecom Subscriber Annual Growth Rate 45 42.4 40 40 35 30 29 27.7 24.7 25.2 25 22 20 15 10 5 0 15 17 18 22 24.7 21.9 24 21.2
  • 8. Page |8 BSNL cellular service, CellOne, has more than 17.8 million cellular customers, garnering 24 percent of all mobile users as its subscribers. That means that almost every fourth mobile user in the country has a BSNL connection. In basic services, BSNL is miles ahead of its rivals, with 35.1 million Basic Phone subscribers i.e. 85 per cent share of the subscriber base and 92 percent share in revenue terms. BSNL has more than 2.5 million WLL subscribers and 2.5 million Internet Customers who access Internet through various modes viz. Dial-up, Leased Line, DIAS, and Account Less Internet (CLI). BSNL has been adjudged as the NUMBER ONE ISP in the country. Internet Subscriber Base In Per cent 2% 5% 1% BSNL 6% MTNL Sify 6% 45% 7% Bharti Airtel Reliance VSNL 9% You Telecom 19% Hath Way Cable & Data Others BSNL has set up a world class multi-gigabit, multi-protocol convergent IP infrastructure that provides convergent services like voice, data and video through the same Backbone and Broadband Access Network. At present there are 0.6 million DataOne broadband customers. The company has vast experience in Planning, Installation, network integration and Maintenance of Switching & Transmission Networks and also has a world class ISO 9000 certified Telecom Training Institute. BSNL plans to expand its customer base from present 73 millions lines to 125 million lines and infrastructure investment plan to the tune of Rs. 733 crores (US$ 16.67 million) in the next three years. Today, BSNL is India's largest Telco and one of the largest Public Sector Undertaking with estimated market value of $ 100 Billion. The company is planning an IPO with in 6 months to offload 10% to public in the Rs 300-400 range valuing the company at over $100 billion.
  • 9. Page |9 INTERESTING FACTS  There are 2 million BSNL mobile connections in rural India (a record, no other connection is as famous as BSNL in rural areas).  BSNL supplies phone lines to all other network such as Airtel, Vodafone etc.  BSNL is the only network which offers broadband connections.  More than 50% of the international calls coming to India use Reliance network.  Largest pan India coverage-over 11000 towns & 3 lakh villages.  India’s No. 1 wireless service provider with more than 50 million customers.  An incredible speed of 2mbps is only offered by BSNL.  The only Mobile service available throughout the country including Jammu and Kashmir and North Eastern states like Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, and Mizoram etc.
  • 10. P a g e | 10 ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE OF BSNL Chief Executive Officer Personnel / HRD Administration Marketing / Sales Finance & Account Export & Import Investment Costing
  • 11. P a g e | 11 THE BSNL SERVICES  BSNL LANDLINE  INTELLIGENT NETWORK  BSNL MOBILE FREE PHONE SERVICE POSTPAID PREMIUM RATE SERVICE PREPAID INDIA TELEPHONE CARD UNIFIED MESSAGING VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK GPRS/WAP/MMS (VPN) DEMOs VOICE VPN TARIFF UNIVERSAL NUMBER  BSNL WLL  INTERNET SERVICES UNIVERSAL PERSONAL NUMBER TELE VOTING NETWORK BROADBAND  VIDEO CONFERENCING WI- F I  AUDIO CONFERENCING CO-LOCATION SERVICE BSNL WEB HOSTING  TELEX/ TELEGRAPH DIAL UP INTERNET EPABX SMS& BULK SMS EPABX  BSNL BROADBAND FREE EPABX CENTREX  BSNL MANAGED NETWORK SERVICES  HVNET  BSNL MPLS-VPN  INMARSAT  ISDN  TRANSPONDER  LEASED LINE
  • 12. P a g e | 12 When it comes to connecting the four corners of the nation and much beyond - one solitary name lies embedded at the pinnacle BSNL. A company that has gone past the number games and the quest to attain the position of a leader. It is working round the clock to take India into the future by providing world class telecom services for people of India. BSNL is India's no. 1 Telecom Service provider and most trusted Telecom brand of the Nation. Driven by the very best of telecom technology from chosen global leaders, it connects each inch of the nation to the infinite corners of the globe, to enable you to step into tomorrow. Basic Telephone Services The Plain old, Countrywide telephone Service through 32,000 electronic exchanges. Digitalized Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) has a host of Phone Plus value additions. BSNL launched Data One broadband service in January 2005 which shall be extended to 198 cities very shortly. The service is being provided on existing copper infrastructure on ADSL2 technology. The minimum speed offered to the customer is 256 Kbps at Rs. 250/- per month only. Subsequently, other services such as VPN, Multicasting, Video Conferencing, Video-onDemand, Broadcast application etc will be added. Internet Keeping the global network of Networks networked, the countrywide Internet Services of BSNL under the brand name includes Internet dial up/ Leased line access, CLI based access (no account is required) and DIAS service, for web browsing and E-mail applications. You can use your dialup Sancharnet account from any place in India using the same access no '172233' , the facility which no other ISP. BSNL has customer base of more than 1.7 million for Sancharnet service. ISDN Integrated Service Digital Network Service of BSNL utilizes a unique digital network providing high speed and high quality voice, data and image transfer over the same line. It can also facilitate both desktop video and high quality video conferencing. Intelligent Network Intelligent Network Service (In Service) offers value-added services, such as: I-Net India s x.25 based packet Switched Public Data Network is operational in 104 cities of the country. It offers x.25 x.28 leased, x.28 Dial up (PSTN) Connection) and frame relay services.
  • 13. P a g e | 13 Leased Lines & Data-com BSNL provides leased lines for voice and data communication for various application on point to point basis. It offers a choice of high, medium and low speed leased data circuits as well as dialup lines. Bandwidth is available on demand in most cities. Managed Leased Line Network (MLLN) offers flexibility of providing circuits with speeds of nx64 kbps upto 2mbps, useful for Internet leased lines and International Principle Leased Circuits (IPLCs). Cellular Mobile Service Postpaid and Prepaid BSNL’s GSM cellular mobile service Cellone has a customer base of over 5.2 million. BSNL Mobile provides all the services like MMS, GPRS, Voice Mail, E-mail, Short Message Service (SMS) both national and international, unified messaging service (send and receive e-mails) etc. You can use BSNL Mobile in over 160 countries worldwide and in 270 cellular networks and over 1000 cities/towns across India. It has got coverage in all National and State Highways and train routes. BSNL Mobile offers all India Roaming facility to both pre-paid and post-paid customers (including Mumbai & Delhi). Wireless in Local Loop This is a communication system that connects customers to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) using radio frequency signals as a substitute for conventional wires for all or part of the connection between the subscribers and the telephone exchange. Countrywide WLL is being offered in areas that are non-feasible for the normal network. Helping relieve congestion of connections in the normal cable/wire based network in urban. Connecting the remote and scattered rural areas. Limited mobility without any air-time charge.
  • 14. P a g e | 14 TRANSMISSION The call is transmitted from telephone to: Caller / D.P / Pillar / MDF / Exchange / Tax / Exchange / MDF Pillar D.P Receiver There are two types of media:  Guided Media (OFC)  Un-Guided Media.
  • 15. P a g e | 15 BROADBAND A trend of changes in telecommunication technology is very fast. The need of hour is large bandwidth and its optimum utilization at reasonable cost. Any data access rate more than 2Mbps is considered as broadband access. As per the recent broadband policy of govt. of India, access rate over 256kbps will come under category of broadband access. Equipment's required in customer premises are     Filter:-The filter separates out the signal for telephone. (Called as Splitter) Modem:-The modem directs the signal to PC and TV. Set Top Box (STB)-The STB converts the digital IP based signal to a form compatible with the TV set. PC and TV What is DSL? • • A high speed digital communication line Has several advantages over other high speed communication solutions. • DSL runs on existing copper • DSL helps carriers reduce congestion on their voice-switching systems • Very high speed. Data Card There are two type of data card: 1. IX data card (speed -144kbps (max)) 2. E-VDO data card (speed - 2Mbps)
  • 16. P a g e | 16 OCB EXCHANGE SYSTEM Salient Features          OCB stands for organ control bhersion. Digital switching system developed by CIT ALCATEL of France. OMC & S/N duplicated. Varieties of service provided are: basic telephony, ISDN, Mobile, Videotext etc. Supports different types of signaling system. Max. no. of junctions may be 60000 and 35 types of cards can be used. Less space requirement. Automatic fault recovery and remote monitoring. Environmental requirement is not very stringent. Major Units of OCB System Subscriber Connection Unit (CSN) A CSN basically consists of 1 basic rack and 3 extension racks capacity of CSN is 5000. Subs may be analog and digital. Trunk & Junction Connection (SMT) It is the interface between switching network and junctions from other exchanges (or remote connection unit). Switching Matrix The Switching matrix is a single stage ‘t’ made up of host switching matrix and branch selection & amplification function, SMX is duplicated. Auxiliary Equipment Control Station (SMA) It consists of frequency receiver/generator conference call CCTS, tone generators etc. Control Unit (SMC) - The six control units are as under:  Multi register (MR) for connecting and disconnecting calls.  Translator (TR) for storing exchange database.  Charging unit (TX) for carrying out charging jobs.  Marker (MQ) for performing connection & disconnection of subscribers.  Ccs-7 controller (PC) for carrying out routing & traffic management functions.  Matrix system handler (GX) for monitoring connection in S/N.
  • 17. P a g e | 17 Operation & Maintenance Unit (SMM) It is OMC for supervising functions of different units and for taking suitable actions at the event of faults. Magnetic disks each of capability 1.2 GB for various stages. In the field of telecommunications, a telephone exchange or telephone switch is a system of electronic components that connects telephone calls. A central office is the physical building used to house inside plant equipment including telephone switches, which make phone calls "work" in the sense of making connections and relaying the speech information. MOBILE COMMUNICATION Mobile phones send and receive radio signals with any number of cell site base stations fitted with microwave antennas. These sites are usually mounted on a tower, pole or building, located throughout populated areas, then connected to a cabled communication network and switching system. The phones have a low-power transceiver that transmits voice and data to the nearest cell sites, normally not more than 8 to 13 km (approximately 5 to 8 miles) away. When the mobile phone or data device is turned on, it registers with the mobile telephone exchange, or switch, with its unique identifiers, and can then be alerted by the mobile switch when there is an incoming telephone call. The handset constantly listens for the strongest signal being received from the surrounding base stations, and is able to switch seamlessly between sites. As the user moves around the network, the "handoffs" are performed to allow the device to switch sites without interrupting the call. Cell sites have relatively low-power (often only one or two watts) radio transmitters which broadcast their presence and relay communications between the mobile handsets and the switch. The switch in turn connects the call to another subscriber of the same wireless service provider or to the public telephone network, which includes the networks of other wireless carriers. Many of these sites are camouflaged to blend with existing environments, particularly in scenic areas. The dialogue between the handset and the cell site is a stream of digital data that includes digitized audio (except for the first generation analog networks). The technology that achieves this depends on the system which the mobile phone operator has adopted. The technologies are grouped by generation. The first-generation systems started in 1979 with Japan, are all analog and include AMPS and NMT. Second-generation systems, started in 1991 in Finland, are all digital and include GSM, CDMA and TDMA. The nature of cellular technology renders many phones vulnerable to 'cloning': anytime a cell phone moves out of coverage (for example, in a road tunnel), when the signal is re-established, the phone sends out a 're-connect' signal to the nearest cell-tower, identifying itself and signaling that it is again ready to transmit. With the proper equipment, it's possible to intercept the re-connect signal and encode the data it contains into a 'blank' phone -in all respects, the 'blank' is then an exact duplicate of the real phone and any calls made on the 'clone' will be charged to the original account. Third-generation (3G) networks, which are still being deployed, began in 2001. They are all digital, and offer high-speed data access in addition to voice services and include W-CDMA (known also as UMTS), and CDMA2000 EV-DO. China will launch a third generation technology on the TD-SCDMA standard. Operators use a mix of pre-designated frequency bands determined by the network requirements and local
  • 18. P a g e | 18 regulations. In an effort to limit the potential harm from having a transmitter close to the user's body, the first fixed/mobile cellular phones that had a separate transmitter, vehicle-mounted antenna, and handset (known as car phones and bag phones) were limited to a maximum 3 watts Effective Radiated Power. Modern handheld cell phones which must have the transmission antenna held inches from the user's skull are limited to a maximum transmission power of 0.6 watts ERP. Regardless of the potential biological effects, the reduced transmission range of modern handheld phones limits their usefulness in rural locations as compared to car/bag phones, and handhelds require that cell towers be spaced much closer together to compensate for their lack of transmission power. Some handhelds include an optional auxiliary antenna port on the back of the phone, which allows it to be connected to a large external antenna and a 3 watt cellular booster. Alternately in fringereception areas, a cellular repeater may be used, which uses a long distance high-gain dish antenna or yagi antenna to communicate with a cell tower far outside of normal range, and a repeater to rebroadcast on a small short-range local antenna that allows any cell phone within a few meters to function properly.
  • 19. P a g e | 19 GSM Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Special Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. Its promoter, the GSM Association, estimates that 82% of the global mobile market uses the standard. GSM is used by over 3 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories. Its ubiquity makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators, enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. GSM differs from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital, and thus is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. This has also meant that data communication was easy to build into the system. The ubiquity of the GSM standard has been an advantage to both consumers (who benefit from the ability to roam and switch carriers without switching phones) and also to network operators (who can choose equipment from any of the many vendors implementing GSM). GSM also pioneered a low-cost, to the network carrier, alternative to voice calls, the Short message service (SMS, also called "text messaging"), which is now supported on other mobile standards as well. Another advantage is that the standard includes one worldwide Emergency telephone number, 112. This makes it easier for international travelers to connect to emergency services without knowing the local emergency number. Newer versions of the standard were backwardcompatible with the original GSM phones. For example, Release '97 of the standard added packet data capabilities, by means of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Release '99 introduced higher speed data transmission using Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE). GSM is a cellular network, which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. GSM networks operate in four different frequency ranges. Most GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Some countries in the Americas (including Canada and the United States) use the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands because the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands were already allocated. The rarer 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries, notably Scandinavia, where these frequencies were previously used for first-generation systems. GSM-900 uses 890–915 MHz to send information from the mobile station to the base station (uplink) and 935–960 MHz for the other direction (downlink), providing 124 RF channels (channel numbers 1 to 124) spaced at 200 kHz. Duplex spacing of 45 MHz is used. In some countries the GSM-900 band has been extended to cover a larger frequency range. This 'extended GSM', E-GSM, uses 880–915 MHz (uplink) and 925–960 MHz (downlink), adding 50 channels (channel numbers 975 to 1023 and 0) to the original GSM-900 band. Time division multiplexing is used to allow eight full-rate or sixteen half-rate speech channels per radio frequency channel. There are eight radio timeslots (giving eight burst periods) grouped into what is called a TDMA frame. Half rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot. The channel data rate is 270.833 kbit/s, and the frame duration is 4.615 ms. The transmission power in the handset is limited to a maximum of 2 watts in GSM850/900 and 1 watt in GSM1800/1900.
  • 20. P a g e | 20 GSM has used a variety of voice codecs to squeeze 3.1 kHz audio into between 5.6 and 13 kbit/s. Originally, two codecs, named after the types of data channel they were allocated, were used, called Half Rate (5.6 kbit/s) and Full Rate (13 kbit/s). These used a system based upon linear predictive coding (LPC). In addition to being efficient with bit rates, these codecs also made it easier to identify more important parts of the audio, allowing the air interface layer to prioritize and better protect these parts of the signal. GSM was further enhanced in 1997 with the Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) codec, a 12.2 kbit/s codec that uses a full rate channel. Finally, with the development of UMTS, EFR was refactored into a variable-rate codec called AMR-Narrowband, which is high quality and robust against interference when used on full rate channels, and less robust but still relatively high quality when used in good radio conditions on half-rate channels. There are five different cell sizes in a GSM network—macro, micro, pico, femto and umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average roof top level. Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average roof top level; they are typically used in urban areas. Picocells are small cells whose coverage diameter is a few dozen meters; they are mainly used indoors. Femtocells are cells designed for use in residential or small business environments and connect to the service provider’s network via a broadband internet connection. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells. Cell horizontal radius varies depending on antenna height, antenna gain and propagation conditions from a couple of hundred meters to several tens of kilometers. The longest distance the GSM specification supports in practical use is 35 kilometers (22 mi). There are also several implementations of the concept of an extended cell, where the cell radius could be double or even more, depending on the antenna system, the type of terrain and the timing advance. Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by using an indoor picocell base station, or an indoor repeater with distributed indoor antennas fed through power splitters, to deliver the radio signals from an antenna outdoors to the separate indoor distributed antenna system. These are typically deployed when a lot of call capacity is needed indoors, for example in shopping centers or airports. However, this is not a prerequisite, since indoor coverage is also provided by in-building penetration of the radio signals from nearby cells. The modulation used in GSM is Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK), a kind of continuousphase frequency shift keying. In GMSK, the signal to be modulated onto the carrier is first smoothed with a Gaussian low-pass filter prior to being fed to a frequency modulator, which greatly reduces the interference to neighboring channels (adjacent channel interference).
  • 21. P a g e | 21 GSM NETWORK STRUCTURE The network behind the GSM system seen by the customer is large and complicated in order to provide all of the services which are required. It is divided into a number of sections and these are each covered in separate articles.     The Base Station Subsystem (the base stations and their controllers). The Network and Switching Subsystem (the part of the network most similar to a fixed network). This is sometimes also just called the core network. The GPRS Core Network (the optional part which allows packet based Internet connections). All of the elements in the system combine to produce many GSM services such as voice calls and SMS [The structure of a GSM network] Subscriber Identity Module One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM), commonly known as a SIM card. The SIM is a detachable smart card containing the user's subscription information and phone book. This allows the user to retain his or her information after switching handsets. Alternatively, the user can also change operators while retaining the handset simply by changing the SIM. Some operators will block this by allowing the phone to use only a single SIM, or only a SIM issued by them; this practice is known as SIM locking, and is illegal in some countries. Many operators lock the mobiles they sell. This is done because the price of the mobile phone is typically subsidized with revenue from subscriptions, and operators want to try to avoid subsidizing competitor's mobiles. The locking applies to the handset, identified by its
  • 22. P a g e | 22 International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number, not to the account (which is identified by the SIM card). In some countries such as India, all phones are sold unlocked. GSM security GSM was designed with a moderate level of security. The system was designed to authenticate the subscriber using a pre-shared key and challenge-response. Communications between the subscriber and the base station can be encrypted. The development of UMTS introduces an optional USIM, that uses a longer authentication key to give greater security, as well as mutually authenticating the network and the user - whereas GSM only authenticated the user to the network (and not vice versa). The security model therefore offers confidentiality and authentication, but limited authorization capabilities, and no non-repudiation. GSM uses several cryptographic algorithms for security. The A5/1 and A5/2 stream ciphers are used for ensuring over-the-air voice privacy. A5/1 was developed first and is a stronger algorithm used within Europe and the United States; A5/2 is weaker and used in other countries. Serious weaknesses have been found in both algorithms: it is possible to break A5/2 in real-time with a cipher textonly attack, and in February 2008, Pico Computing, Inc revealed its ability and plans to commercialize FPGAs that allow A5/1 to be broken with a rainbow table attack. The system supports multiple algorithms so operators may replace that cipher with a stronger one. Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base Transceiver Station (BTS) is the equipment which facilitates the wireless communication between user equipments (UE) and the network. UEs are devices like mobile phones (handsets), WLL phones, computers with wireless internet connectivity, WiFi and WiMAX gadgets etc. The network can be that of any of the wireless communication technologies like GSM, CDMA, WLL , WAN, WiFi, WiMAX etc. BTS is also referred to as RBS (Radio Base Station), Node B (in 3G Networks) or simply BS (Base Station). Though the term BTS can be applicable to any of the wireless communication standards, it is generally and commonly associated with mobile communication technologies like GSM and CDMA. In this regard, a BTS forms part of the Base Station Subsystem (BSS) developments for system management. It may also have equipments for encrypting and decrypting communications, spectrum filtering tools (band pass filters) etc. Antennas may also be considered as components of BTS in general sense as they facilitate the functioning of BTS. Typically a BTS will have several transceivers (TRXs) which allow it to serve several different frequencies and different sectors of the cell (in the case of sectorised base stations). A BTS is controlled by a parent Base Station Controller via the Base station Control Function (BCF). The BCF is implemented as a discrete unit or even incorporated in a TRX in compact base stations. The BCF provides an Operations and Maintenance (O&M) connection to the Network management system (NMS), and manages operational states of each TRX, as well as software handling and alarm collection. The basic structure and functions of the BTS remains the same regardless of the wireless technologies. Broadband Broadband in telecommunications refers to a signaling method that includes or handles a relatively wide range of frequencies, which may be divided into channels or frequency bins.
  • 23. P a g e | 23 Broadband is always a relative term, understood according to its context. The wider the bandwidth, the greater the information-carrying capacity. In radio, for example, a very narrowband signal will carry Morse code; a broader band will carry speech; a still broader band is required to carry music without losing the high audio frequencies required for realistic sound reproduction. A television antenna described as "normal" may be capable of receiving a certain range of channels; one described as "broadband" will receive more channels. In data communications a modem will transmit a bandwidth of 56 kilobits per seconds (kbit/s) over a telephone line; over the same telephone line a bandwidth of several megabits per second can be handled by ADSL, which is described as broadband (relative to a modem over a telephone line, although much less than can be achieved over a fiber optic circuit, for example). In data communications:- Broadband in data communications can refer to broadband networks or broadband Internet and may have the same meaning as above, so that data transmission over a fiber optic cable would be referred to as broadband as compared to a telephone modem operating at 56,000 bits per second. However, broadband in data communications is frequently used in a more technical sense to refer to data transmission where multiple pieces of data are sent simultaneously to increase the effective rate of transmission, regardless of actual data rate. In network engineering this term is used for methods where two or more signals share a medium. In video: -Broadband in analog video distribution is traditionally used to refer to systems such as cable television, where the individual channels are modulated on carriers at fixed frequencies. In this context, baseband is the term's antonym, referring to a single channel of analog video, typically in composite form with an audio subcarrier. The act of demodulating converts broadband video to baseband video. However, broadband video in the context of streaming Internet video has come to mean video files that have bitrates high enough to require broadband Internet access in order to view them. Broadband video is also sometimes used to describe IPTV Video on demand. In DSL: - The various forms of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) services are broadband in the sense that digital information is sent over a high-bandwidth channel above the baseband voice channel on a single pair of wires. In Ethernet: -A baseband transmission sends one type of signal using a medium's full bandwidth, as in 100BASE-T Ethernet. Ethernet, however, is the common interface to broadband modems such as DSL data links, and has a high data rate itself, so is sometimes referred to as broadband. Ethernet provisioned over cable modem is a common alternative to DSL BSNL is in the process of commissioning of a world class, multi-gigabit, multi-protocol, convergent IP infrastructure through National Internet Backbone-II (NIB-II), that will provide convergent services through the same backbone and broadband access network. The Broadband service will be available on DSL technology (on the same copper cable that is used for connecting telephone), on a countrywide basis spanning 198 cities. In terms of infrastructure for broadband services NIB-II would put India at par with more advanced nations. The services that would be supported includes always-on broadband access to the Internet for residential and business customers, Content based services, Video multicasting, Video-on-demand and Interactive gaming, Audio and Video conferencing, IP Telephony,
  • 24. P a g e | 24 Distance learning, Messaging: plain and feature rich, Multi-site MPLS VPNs with Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees. The subscribe will be able to access the above services through Subscriber Service Selection System (SSSS) portal. OBJECTIVES       To provide high speed Internet connectivity (up to 8 Mbps) To provide Virtual Private Network (VPN) service to the broadband customers To provide dial VPN service to MPLS VPN customers. To provide multicast video services, video-on-demand, etc. through the Broadband Remote Access Server (BRAS). To provide a means to bill for the aforesaid services by either time-based or volumebased billing. It shall provide the customer with the option to select the services through web server To provide both pre-paid and post paid broadband services.
  • 25. P a g e | 25 CONCLUSION BSNL being a public sector, in order to thrive and excel, have to understand about the customer expectations. They also have to understand about their competitors and their nuances in understanding their customer, since communication industry is a very competitive one it is high time for BSNL to understand about their Customers in landline as well as mobile services.
  • 26. P a g e | 26 BIBLIOGRAPHY PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT - PHILLIP KOLTER MARKETING RESEARCH -N.K.MALOTHRA WEBSITES: 1. WWW.BSNL.CO.IN 2. WWW.YAHOO.COM 3. WWW.GOOGLE.COM