Virtual Therapists: teaching tomorrows health care practitioners how to use Wikis


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This presentation was given at the Canadian Network for Innovation in Education conference in Ottawa, ON, in June 2009. The key message was that with the right educators and right tools Wikis can enhance group learning activities.

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  • In my presentation today I will tell you about my experience of introducing wikis into three programs in the Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine at the University of Alberta. The programs were physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech and language pathology. I am tempted to tell you that it was all rosy, because that would make me look good… But this is really an opportunity for me to tell you about a journey of discovery, frustration, revelation, intrigue and finally, a lesson in eLearning! And a lesson that is ongoing
  • This vision for this project began several years back, when practicing as an occupational therapist I became more and more involved in using, creating and sharing information in the online world... and even working in virtual teams across the country. When I started working as an academic at Deakin University in Australia was given the know-how about how to create blogs, wikis, podcasts and so on in my teaching…I realized that this was my “thing” but felt that my growing interest in all things Web 2.0 was not seen by others as a legitimate tool for health care practitioners. My job as an educator is to create and deliver relevant and responsive curriculum for my students, to prepare them for working in healthcare settings and to be lifelong learners. I teach theory and practice courses… Where does Web 2.0 fit in all of this? Undertaking the graduate certificate in higher education at Deakin University gave me opportunity to reflect on my concern, I was passionate about Web 2.0 but I was employed to teach OTs, would I need to leave direct teaching to become an eLearning expert… or could I fit this in to my role legitimately. Finally my reading and research enabled me to see that having the capacity to be discerning in the online environment, to be able to create up-to-date information to post to the web, to be able to network effectively in this global online world was not simply a hobby..., Potts (2006) stated that an overwhelming majority of online healthcare information is NOT developed by qualified health care professionals, he stated in his 2006 article that if we don’t change this (as healthcare educators) then it won’t change. My students needed these skills to be well-rounded and future thinking healthcare practitioners! Kift, a law educator in Queensland, identified way back in 2003 that in order to teach skills in utilizing Web 2.0 tools we could not simply bolt this on to the curriculum… it needed to be embedded. Thus a vision was born… and then transported to Canada with me after I was offered a position at the University of Alberta.
  • After arriving at the University of Alberta I shared my passion with my colleagues and found a small group of educators who had similar interests and vision. To us the this vision sounded simple … it does, doesn’t it? Well maybe to fellow early adopters it does, but when I was explaining to fellow educators that we need to embed Web 2.0 into our healthcare education so that the next generation of healthcare practitioners is ready willing and able to create excellent healthcare resources… Many were skeptical… Do these students really need us to teach them this? Don’t THEY have these skills anyway and um… who is going to teach them, the majority of faculty would not know how to go about this. So, I applied for and received a teaching and learning enhancement fund grant and the project was able to be run with assistance, we decided to keep it to ONE Web 2.0 tool, a Wiki, and would invite participation by educators through a faculty in-service about the use of Wikis in higher education and healthcare practice My vision was shared and I had volunteers from each of the three disciplines, OT, PT and SLP
  • The project began in April 2008, and was launched in its first course in September 2009. The plan was for Wikis to be used in group-work tasks, as this would demonstrate to students its capacity to facilitate collaboration and teamwork in an online environment. Pedagogically the Wiki only suited one course in term 1, so we started with that one and held the other two over to term 2. The lead time was spent negotiating with our IT support how to access the Wiki program we had chosen, how to embed this in the LMS and in obtaining ethics approval for the project. We decided to use Mediawiki as our wiki program as it has a clear format and students are used to viewing this (familiarity seemed important at this time in our decision making), and we decided to house it in the LMS, WebCT to make accessing the Wiki more simple yet private. Technical support to students was provided by me (with IT behind me) and the course instructor maintained the role of primary educator for the course and gave support for the assessment task itself Our roles were clearly defined, the task was clear and I set up the Wiki template for the instructors and students to access. I visited class to inform the students about the aims of the project and gave them information about Web 2.0 and particularly Wikis in health care practice. … we were on our way with our first Wiki…
  • Here is a page from the physiotherapy Wiki. You may recognize the Mediawiki format. The Wiki training went to plan and students were able to add text, graphics and links, edit others’ work, each group had at least one person trained in a face to face session and would facilitate others in their group to learn how to use the Wiki. Students came directly to me with any technical/Wiki concerns and to the course instructors for any coursework concerns.
  • Here’s one group’s page looking at the evidence around rehabilitation best practice post total hip replacement surgery
  • This carefully selected photo depicts a rather stormy scene… this is not an accident! Soon after starting the project we experienced some problems and before we even got to the focus groups I was getting a clear picture that the storm clouds were brewing. Technical glitches impacted the students and the project… Mac computers had difficulty loading the Mediawiki page, unless it was accessed via Firefox, and still then it had some problems Mediawiki would stop working within WebCT, WebCT would be down for maintenance, but as this group of students rarely use this Learning management system they did not realize the implications despite receiving notification by email. Technical support Technical support was slow to access: and as we were a small pilot project it was not noticed quickly by our IT support people and it would take a chain of messages from student to me to IT and sometimes also via the course instructor, to get it rectified… Instructor The course instructor was becoming increasingly frustrated as the task set turned out to be more difficult than expected , she had minimal time to visit the Wiki to check students progress and she was regretting agreeing to be in the project. The frustrations she articulated were: Not being able to work using preferred style (NOT being able to easily grade the wiki… she wanted to write in red, like she did on a paper, so to be able to do that she needed to work in the wiki itself, learn how to make text red and move around the document) She did not believe that Students collaborated, but felt that they compartmentalized the task to “get it over with” The task The way the course was set up it was not well suited to working in a Wiki. The instructors did not have time to communicate with students through the wiki, so they did not experience the satisfaction of being involved in formative assessment The student The students felt pressured to complete the task and the technical difficulties with the Wiki became the focus, not the objectives of the learning task.
  • In the first focus groups the PT students who attended tended to be those who had managed the learning task well and were reasonably positive about using a Wiki. They told stories about how other groups had not managed as well and explained where they thought the problems lay. It was very important to clarify which were the problems with the wiki and which were the problems with group size (8 per group) the task, the instructor, the support and of course, the technical difficulties So how do we unravel this and facilitate a better outcome in the next phase of the wiki project? We needed to make some quick decisions over the Christmas/New Year break to avert recurrence of these issues.
  • To avert the difficulties being repeated we made the following decisions: Embedding in WebCT was not a good decision: Change wiki program – we selected PB Wiki (we had also looked at wetpaint and wikispaces) Having instructors with flexibility in their approach to curriculum design, delivery and assessment is good when introducing a Wiki. Review the choice of educators who volunteered for the next term… give them an honest report about the wiki project and give them the opportunity to re-consider… One person elected to withdraw, and a new person came into the project with their course. Suggest to instructors that they slightly reduce curriculum to accommodate learning the Wiki program, or allocate higher grades to the task that has the Wiki Discuss the importance of formative assessment. It is crucial to students and instructors and is one of the most worthwhile reasons for using a Wiki, rather than simply producing a final product for submission (ie: it is about the process, not the product) Don’t assume that your students are tech-savvy just because they’re in their 20’s!
  • In term two we had to quickly get up and running with two new wikis. We wanted to create a better flow and experience for both the instructors and the students (and for me… the bunny in the middle trying to be the objective researcher!) As I mentioned earlier, we selected PBWiki as our Wiki program as it met our revised criteria: available 24/7; able to be private; simple to navigate through and use, but with sophisticated applications; able to be personalized to suit the needs of the assessment task and learning group.
  • This is how the Speech Pathology course wiki looked. The aim of this assignment was to work in pairs to create a resource about a neurological condition relevant to SLP The students also reviewed another pair’s work. Students could view each others’ wikis throughout the course and assessment task. It is purple as that meets the needs of one of the students who has a vision impairment.
  • This is the occupational therapy wiki. It was also in PB wiki and was a group assessment task with approximately 6-7 students per group. In this course students were required to use the wiki as a place to collaborate while developing a therapeutic group activity. They then used the wiki to market their group as they needed to invite students and faculty to attend. Students could see each others’ work throughout the course. Features of this wiki that students commented on was it’s colour, personality, and they particularly liked the feature at the bottom of the wiki where you could leave comments. This is in place of having another tab (discussion tab in mediawiki).
  • Each group’s page was unique. Some were colourful, others were more formal.
  • Today I don’t have time to go into this variable, but we collected data on learning styles in the project and in fact found that the three groups of students fall into three different learning style groups! Students were not able to comment on how they felt their learning style impacted how they worked in a wiki, we had some suspicions that the technology difficulties in the PT wiki group made it particularly difficult for that group as they did not see the big picture of learning how to use a wiki and were outcome/task focused. SLP students were more patient as they could see the big picture and the OT students were “hands on” let’s just get in there and do it!
  • Throughout the second term the feedback was positive, technical glitches had been minimal, students were reporting that the wiki was simple to use, yet sophisticated in its applications, instructors were updating me on their surprises and opportunities for teaching by regularly visiting the Wiki and offering suggestions, comments, feedback etc Through our focus groups with students from all three disciplines we were able to reveal key themes, these will be presented now.
  • Formatting sometimes went wrong… that was frustrating
  • It streamlined the process Less emails No passing around a USB key
  • Wiki can be accessed from anywhere Wiki could be used as a graduate to work with other people in a shared topic of interest Wikis could be developed as resources for clients and to also encourage client input.
  • The educator needs to have an adequate level of knowledge to use the tool as well as the students
  • The educator needs to have support so that they don’t feel overwhelmed by the wiki
  • Flexibility by the instructor is important
  • Enthusiasm by the educator is very helpful
  • Understanding the technicalities is important if students are going to apply this knowledge in their future practice
  • Information needs to be accurate, reliable, evidence-based Knowing who is inputing into a wiki is important for trust
  • Reticence to use the wiki tools until they understood that they couldn’t damage others’ work
  • Some students noticed that using technology is part of their working habits anyway, so the wiki was pretty easy to learn, they could see that for some students using the library and hard copy journals and books was still some students’ primary approach to the task
  • Seeing the big picture students were happy to be “forced” to use technology
  • one instructor really struggled with grading the wiki as it did not suit her usual style and she was not happy about changing it.
  • One instructor was very playful and decided to put the comments to her students in “white” on the white background... a bit like magic ink! The student simply had to select and change colour to read the comments! The beauty of wikis are that the history would show if any student had changed the colour to read comments for another group.
  • The course design facilitated a collaborative environment.
  • Wiki is a tool for working online together it’s also a good way to see if you are on track! Instructors wanted students to learn from each other
  • In PB wiki students can be notified of changes to the Wiki:
  • Increased comfort in giving feedback when using the online environment
  • When you look at the literature on successful eLearning we have come across similar themes and have similar dilemmas/questions, this section combines my findings with the findings and recommendations made by Sun, Tsai, Finger, Chen & Yeh, 2008 whose paper titled “what drives successful e-Learning?” gives clear suggestions for enhancing the outcomes in elearning.
  • It was important to work as much with the educators as it was to work with the students… the educators attitude is CRUCIAL!
  • If the technology is easy to use, and creates a professional product, then students were happy to learn.
  • This is the other biggest area for investment, Institutions need to hire curriculum designers to help educators adapt their old approaches to the online environment. This means working from the bottom up, with the course vision in mind, knowledge of the learners, the educator’s abilities and expectations of their role...
  • It is evident that students are more positive about online learning when the three previous areas are properly covered. When this is well done, they feel more connected with the educator, they see the assessments as appropriate and useful, and they see how the technology is enabling their learning (and that it can do so again in the future).
  • The difficulties we experienced in the first version of the wiki project with the physical therapy course highlight the importance of how we go about the diffusion of innovation. Everett Rogers (2003) defines diffusion as the process in which innovation is communicated through certain channels over time through the members of a Social System. Rogers explains that the key elements for successful diffusion of innovation include an idea (innovation), communication channels, time and a social system.  The concept of using a wiki is still considered novel in healthcare education the diffusion of innovation using a wiki was only successful when the components identified by Rogers were in place. These elements were present in this project in one or several ways: The idea/innovation was to facilitate students to become knowledgeable about a Web 2.0 tool (a wiki) so that they would have the skills to develop and disseminate quality healthcare resources, using the online environment. The communication channels included me, the educators who volunteered to participate and the wiki and the students; Time was provided by the grant as it allowed us to buy in support that would not otherwise be available The social system was provided by the systems within the Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine at the UofA, the grant, department support, IT support, individual educators support and indeed, the students’ support. The most difficult aspect was the lack of IT support and time which lead to breakdown in communication channels. In order to make the project more successful in the second term we needed to work on the relationship with the instructors and fix the problem surrounding lack of IT support. Final outcome: Two of the three instructors will use wikis again next year (voluntarily and without a lot of support) and one instructor will not. Students report that they are already using wikis in other projects, and in their personal lives. Students are showing supervisors in fieldwork how they could have a wiki in practice The Glenrose hospital has taken advantage of our skilled student population and two students have been employed to create a wiki called home for life.
  • Virtual Therapists: teaching tomorrows health care practitioners how to use Wikis

    1. 1. Virtual Therapists <ul><li>Incorporating Wikis in health-care education </li></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    2. 2. Photography: Luka Skracic
    3. 3. The Vision <ul><li>To develop the skills of the next generation of health-care practitioners to use Web 2.0 tools so they can develop and disseminate excellent health care resources </li></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    4. 4. The Approach <ul><li>Invite instructors to incorporate a Wiki into existing group-work assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Inform students about the project aims & the role of Wikis in health care practice </li></ul><ul><li>Provide training and support </li></ul><ul><li>Invite students and instructors to participate in a learning-style survey and focus groups </li></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    7. 7. The Journey Photography: Luka Skracic
    8. 8. Unraveling the Difficulties ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    9. 9. Mid-way Lessons <ul><li>Change to another wiki program </li></ul><ul><li>Educators need to be flexible and creative… they also need good tech skills and support </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce curriculum while adopting new technology </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a wiki is a journey … the process is as important as the product </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t assume that students are tech-savvy b ased on age </li></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    10. 10. Phase Two of the Journey Photography: Luka Skracic
    11. 11. Speech Pathology Wiki ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    12. 12. Speech Pathology Wiki ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    13. 13. Occupational Therapy Wiki ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    14. 14. Occupational Therapy Wiki ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    15. 15. Kolb’s Learning Styles x 2 = 24.957 p =0.002 Three cells contained less than the required number
    16. 16. Descriptions of Kolb’s learning styles <ul><li>Accommodating </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer &quot;hands-on&quot; experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in new and challenging experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Act on &quot;gut&quot; feelings rather than on logical analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Rely more heavily on people for information than technical analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Action-oriented careers such as marketing or sales. </li></ul><ul><li>Work with others to get assignments done, to set goals, to do field work, and to test out different approaches to completing a project. </li></ul><ul><li>Converging </li></ul><ul><li>Find practical uses for ideas and theories. </li></ul><ul><li>Solve problems and make decisions based on finding solutions to questions or problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer technical tasks and problems than with social and interpersonal issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist and technology careers. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer to experiment with new ideas, simulations, laboratory assignments, and practical applications. </li></ul>OT group PT group
    17. 17. Descriptions of Kolb’s learning styles <ul><li>Assimilating </li></ul><ul><li>Understand wide range of information and putting it into concise, logical form. </li></ul><ul><li>Less focused on people, more interested in abstract ideas and concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Important that a theory have logical soundness than practical value. </li></ul><ul><li>Information and science careers. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer lectures, readings, exploring analytical models, and having time to think things through. </li></ul><ul><li>Diverging </li></ul><ul><li>View concrete situations from many different points of view. </li></ul><ul><li>Observe rather than take action. </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy generating a wide range of ideas, such as brainstorming sessions. </li></ul><ul><li>Broad cultural interests and like to gather information. </li></ul><ul><li>Imaginative and sensitivity to feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Arts, entertainment, and service careers. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer working in groups to gather information, listening with an open mind, and receiving personalized feedback. </li></ul>SP group
    18. 18. Themes <ul><li>Wiki technology </li></ul><ul><li>Educator </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Habits </li></ul><ul><li>New learning environment </li></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    19. 19. Theme 1 Wiki Technology <ul><li>“ I was concerned about completing my assignment and learning what I needed... I wasn’t really interested in learning a lot about technology” (Student) </li></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    20. 20. <ul><li>“ ...we spent more time trying to format than we did with the actual content...” (Student) </li></ul>Theme 1 Wiki Technology ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    21. 21. <ul><li>“ had a really good amount of functions... to link to external sources... link to somebody else’s page... loading external pages... that was pretty cool stuff!” (Student) </li></ul>Theme 1 Wiki Technology ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    22. 22. <ul><li>“ ...I’ve found I have used the Wiki [again], we had to do a case history information and I used the Wiki to fill that in... it was easier than going through the textbook...” (Student) </li></ul>Theme 1 Wiki Technology ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    23. 23. “ ... I don’t think they understood how much work it was going to be to learn about the assignment and learn about this [wiki] too.” (Student) ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA Theme 2 Educator – knowledge, curriculum design, flexibility & enthusiasm.
    24. 24. “ ...we hoped they would use the technology to facilitate learning” (Instructor) ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA Theme 2 Educator – knowledge, curriculum design, flexibility & enthusiasm.
    25. 25. “ ... she [educator] was perfectly willing to change the assignment a bit...” (Student) ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA Theme 2 Educator – knowledge, curriculum design, flexibility & enthusiasm.
    26. 26. “ I remember emailing her [about the wiki] and she got back to me right away, enthusiastic, detailed steps on how to do something or ‘come and see me’. ” (Student) ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA Theme 2 Educator – knowledge, curriculum design, flexibility & enthusiasm.
    27. 27. Theme 3 Trust – information, group, & the Wiki <ul><li>“ I don’t know how the Wiki works really, but also with confidentiality... </li></ul><ul><li> an office only so many people have access... but on the internet?” (Student) </li></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    28. 28. Theme 3 Trust – information, group, & the Wiki <ul><li>“ ... the biggest [concern] would be trust, as to who is actually putting the information on it.” (Student) </li></ul><ul><li>“ ...who had access and what their credentials were.” (Student) </li></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    29. 29. Theme 3 Trust – information, group, & the Wiki <ul><li>“ We didn’t use the comments [tool] until the peer review process as we thought: ‘this is not our project, we don’t want to mess with it’ .” (Student) </li></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    30. 30. <ul><li>“… .she’s often over at the library, she prefers it. I think she could use the computer if she wanted to” (Student) </li></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA Theme 4 Habits – being comfortable with online technology
    31. 31. ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA “ Something you can’t develop online is the friendship...” (Student) “ can’t fully understand someone if you don’t see them... gestures, facial expressions...” (Student) Theme 4 Habits – being comfortable with online technology
    32. 32. <ul><li>“ ...this was a really good opportunity... it forced us to use it... </li></ul><ul><li>...there was some pretty strong resistance... </li></ul><ul><li> was a good way to overcome... reluctance for certain people” (Student) </li></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA Theme 4 Habits – being comfortable with online technology
    33. 33. <ul><li>“ There was one person who wasn’t interested in learning about the Wiki, she knew how to post things... but if it came to changing something like colours, she would ask one of us to do it... it was fine like that” (Student) </li></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA Theme 4 Habits – being comfortable with online technology
    34. 34. <ul><li>“ My style of evaluating is to sit and think and to flip and then to read and then to think... </li></ul><ul><li>...the Wiki doesn’t lend itself to that, you move you click and you can’t easily compare.” (Instructor) </li></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA Theme 4 Habits – being comfortable with online technology
    35. 35. <ul><li>“ ... commenting on people’s work... I told the reader... ‘you will go and see the spacing on your work looks a little wacked... ’ I put the comments in white text. (chuckles) ” (Instructor) </li></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA Theme 4 Habits – being comfortable with online technology
    36. 36. <ul><li>“ There was a peer review process, we’d check content, grammar, anything and then there was an additional page linked where we would put all the suggestions...” (Student) </li></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA Theme 5 New learning environment
    37. 37. ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA “ you could see what they had posted and you could say “I have to post this for my group” .” (Student) “ ...lets have a chance to look at each other’s work... pick up on good ideas... be flattered if someone takes your idea...!” (Instructor) Theme 5 New learning environment
    38. 38. ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA “ ...when we do the editing everyone can see it... some may take it personally but it’s actually a good learning experience too” (Student) Theme 5 New learning environment
    39. 39. ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA “ I might be able to critique someone’s work more on a Wiki rather than being face to face” (Student) Theme 5 New learning environment
    40. 40. ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA “ when you access someone’s ideas in written form you’re accessing different skills of theirs... not their personality, but their written work, it’s quite different [from] to face to face” (Student) Theme 5 New learning environment
    41. 41. ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA “ We’re capitalizing on everyone’s strengths in the groups” (Student) Theme 5 New learning environment
    42. 42. Implications <ul><li>Educator </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Course design </li></ul><ul><li>Learners </li></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    43. 43. Educator profile: <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive attitude to eLearning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsive online </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creative/flexible course design </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formative assessment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think on feet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Share & receive technology tips </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    44. 44. Technology features <ul><ul><li>Sophisticated yet simple/intuitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available 24/7 (or close to that) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suits learning goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a “sandbox” to play with the tools and to share tips </li></ul></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    45. 45. Course design <ul><ul><li>Incorporate training in the new tool to reduce learner anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time given to learn new tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Course learning and evaluation activities meet learning goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities meet technology capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility in evaluation </li></ul></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    46. 46. Learners are more positive when: <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They feel connected with the educator </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They feel they are appropriately evaluated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They perceive the technology as useful, for now and future </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    47. 47. Diffusion of Innovation <ul><li>An Idea </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Social System </li></ul><ul><li>(Rogers, 2003) </li></ul>ANITA HAMILTON UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
    48. 48. Example of Application in Practice
    49. 49. Questions?
    50. 50. References <ul><li>Kift, S. (2003). From bolting on to embedding: How do we progress the seamlessness of online and in-class learning environments to enhance student learning outcomes? Paper presented at the OLT 2003 Excellence: making the connections. From . </li></ul><ul><li>Potts, H. W. W. (2006). Is E-health progressing faster than E-health researchers? [Electronic Version]. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 8. Retrieved 1 May 2008 from . </li></ul><ul><li>Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations. (5th ed.). New York: Free Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Sun, P., Tsai, R. J., Finger, G., Chen, Y., & Yeh, D. (2008). What drives successful e-Learning? An empirical investigation of the critical factors influencing learner satisfaction. Computers & Education, 50, 1183-1202. </li></ul>25 of 24