Junk food habits

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Report Dissemination on
Rationale
Urbanization and globalization has brought shift in the dietary pattern
Increased trend of western type high fat, high sugar and refined carbohydrates and low fiber diets by consuming packed foods, canned juices and soft drinks.
Non- communicable disease are “Silently” becoming a heavy burden for developing countries like Nepal.
Food intakes and Nutrition is the fore major modifiable determinant of chronic disease.
The occurrence of the Non-communicable disease can be prevented to the extent of 80 % simply by adopting good lifestyle like physical exercise, balanced diet and avoiding smoking and alcohol.
Research Objective

Primary goal of the study is to study the food habits of the children and adolescent of Kathmandu Valley.
Specific objective of the research
1. Identify the dietary pattern of the urban children and adolescent on junk foods and restaurant culture.
2. Analyze the effects of the economic and social status as well as peer pressure on food consumption pattern.
3. To indicate the possible risk factors for associated with food consumption pattern.
4. To develop a mechanism for addressing the need for more adequate food information system to maintain the food and nutritional situation of population.

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  • - This shows that the trend of giving children the readymade instant packed foods is increasing in urban areas
  • Junk food habits

    1. 1. Report Dissemination on
    2. 2. Urban Food Habits : BackgroundThe risk factors for non- communicable disease are1. Smoking Habits2. Alcoholism3. Low quality diet4. Physical inactivity .79 % of the death in global scenario is attributed to non-communicable diseaseoccur in developing countriesAmong the total deaths in South Asia, proportion attributed to non-communicabledisease range 7 % in Nepal.
    3. 3. DietPhysical Non-activity Communicable Alcohol disease Tobacco and smoking
    4. 4. Rationale• Increased trend of western type high fat, high sugar and refined carbohydrates and low fiber diets by consuming packed foods, canned juices and soft drinks.• Food intakes and Nutrition is the fore major modifiable determinant of chronic disease.
    5. 5. Research ObjectiveSpecific objective of the research1.2. Analyze the effects of the economic and social status as well as peer pressure on food consumption pattern.3. To indicate the possible risk factors for associated with food consumption pattern.4. To develop a mechanism for addressing the need for more adequate food information system to maintain the food and nutritional situation of population.
    6. 6. Methodology• The study area is eight schools of three districts from Kathmandu Valley including primary level classes and Higher secondary level students
    7. 7. Globlization Urbanization Peer Pressure Global Dietary Transition from traditional Socio-economic factor marketing nutritious food to Junk/packed foods Urban Food Habit Adolescent Children Guardians Food Marketing Health Condition & Food Habits Food PreferencesFamily Background Advertisement Homemade food - Breakfast Junk/packed foods Health problems Parents education Family type -Lunch Cold drinks BMI and occupation - Tiffin Restaurants/cafes/canteen foods
    8. 8. Schools Information• Kathmandu District1. Suryodaya Higher Secondary School- Dillibazzar, Kathmandu2. Mount Glory Higher Secondary School- Tahachal, Kathmandu3. National Integrated College (NIC)- Dillibazar, Kathmandu4. Siddhartha Banasthali H. S. School- Banasthali, Kathmandu• Lalitpur District1. Balankur Secondary School – Lalitpur2. Jana Bhavana Campus- Chapagoun, Lalitpur• Bhaktapur District1. Prabhat H. E.S. School – Byasi- Bhaktapur2. Khwopa H. S. School- Dhekocha- Bhaktapur
    9. 9. Data Analysis and ResultsA comparative data analysis of the data collected from students and children has been done as following:
    10. 10. 1. Age and Sex wise distribution of the Respondents1. Children are most active physically and mentally.• High growth phase by gaining adolescent height, weight and sexual development. The food consumption patterns in these regards are very important for these ages for normal developmentChildren : Primary Level Students-Age group from 8-10 age were 47 % and 11-13 age were 53 %2. Adolescent is a period of intense physiological, psychological and social change.• Eating patterns are frequently erratic in adolescents.• ‘Early adopters’ of new products or ideas.• These age groups provide the insight of the nutritional transition happening in the food habits of the new generation.Adolescents : Higher Secondary Level Students- Age group from 15-17 age were 65 % and 18-20 age were 35%.
    11. 11. 2. Types of Family• The type of family where the children has been brought up influences the dietary pattern of the children.• The type of family also represents the socio- economic background of the respondents.Children: 64 %of the children live with Nuclear / Single family and 26 % live with Joint familyAdolescents 78 % of the respondents have the Nuclear family 22 % of the respondents have Joint familyIn Average 71 % of the respondent’s families are living in nuclear families 29 % of the respondents are living as joint families.
    12. 12. Types of BreakfastChildren• 59 percent of the respondents consume breads and milk for their breakfast.• 15 percent eat cornflakes and milk in breakfast• 8 percent eat rice, dal and curry for breakfast.• Consume biscuits, pies, fruitcakes, milk, noodles, tea,coffee and doughnuts for breakfastAdolescents• 62 percent of the respondents eat their breakfast at home• 11 percent have their breakfast at School,• 26 percent have their breakfast in Canteen/Café• 1 percent of the respondent pack food from home for breakfast.
    13. 13. Types of Lunch 90 77Children 80 74• 77 % eat lunch homemade foods 70• 22 % eat readymade packed foods 60 Percentage• 1 % eat restaurant foods 50 40Adolescents Children Adolescents• 75% of the respondents have homemade food for 23 30 22 Lunch• 23 % generally have readymade packed foods for lunch 20 10• 3 % of the respondents have their lunch in Restaurants. 1 3 0• Adolescent consume less homemade foods and more packed and Homemade food Readymade packed Restruant foods restaurant foods than children foods Types of lunchIn averages• 75.50 % i.e. 3/4th of the respondents eat home cooked foods• 22.5 % respondents eat ready to eat/Junk foods• 2 % eat at restaurants• 1/4th of the respondents eat junk and fast foods for lunch
    14. 14. Types of Tiffin Children• 77 % of the respondents bring Tiffin from home 90 80• 80 23 % get pocket money . 70 Adolescents, 60 64• 20 %of the respondents get home food for the Tiffin. Percentage 50• 80 % of the respondents get pocket money 40 Children Adolescent• They normally go to restaurants, buy junk foods. 30 23 In average, 20 20 13• 42 % of the respondents get home cooked food for 10 Tiffin, 0 0• 6.5 % of respondents get packed food as Tiffin Home cooked food Pocket Money Packed food fromhome• 51.5% i.e. more than half the percent of the respondents get pocket money for the Tiffin.
    15. 15. Food and Drink Preferences 70 65 60 57 50 43 SimilarlyPercentages 40 35 Children 30 • percent respondent preferedAdolescents and 40 percent respondent water prefered drinking soft drinks to water. 20 70 61 59 10 60 Junk foods are Soft Drinks are 0 • Tasty 50 Tasty Home cooked food Packed foods/canteen foods • easily availableitems Preferences of food Percentage 40 39 41 Easily Available • cheaper Cheaper Children • saves times 30 Saves times Adolescents • 20 Refreshing than water 10 0 Water Colddrinks Preference between water and colddrings
    16. 16. Frequency of Consuming Junk Foods and Soft Drinks 40 38 35 Frequency of Consuming Junk foods 36 31 30 • 16 percent of the respondents consume junk food twice a 24 26Percentage 25 20 day 18 • 37 percent consume at least once a day 14 13 15 Children 10 • 27.5 percent consume junk foods on every alternate days Adolescents 5 • 19.5 percent respondents consume junk foods only once a 0 Twice a Once a day On the Once a week. day alternate days week 40 38 36 Frequency of Consuming Soft Drinks Frequency of consumption of junk food 35 31 • 11.50 percent respondents always consume soft drinks 30 26 24 Percentage 25 • 61.5 percent respondents consume soft drinks occaisonaly 20 18 14 13 15 Children • 27 percent rarely consume any 5soft drinks. 10 Adolescents 0 Twice a day Once a day On the Once a week alternate days Frequency of consumption of junk food
    17. 17. Effects of Advertisement on Food Consumption• 32.5 percent respondents watch television for 2-3 hrs. a day• 10.5 percent respondents watch television more that 4 hrs a day. 37 percent respondents do not like to eat food items shown in advertisement.
    18. 18. Nutrition Knowledge of Adolescents 15 percent do not have any idea of balanced diet• High percent of the adolescents were aware about the contents of junk foods and soft drinks but unaware of their effects on their health.
    19. 19. Opinions Regarding Junk foods• 22 percent of them think, consumption of junk foods also help in normal development and growth
    20. 20. Body Mass Index (BMI) 30 26 25 22 Calculation of the BMI is done as per the 20 Percentage of respondents 18 provided height and weight measurement. 15 31 percent adolescents are underweight 13 Male Female• 48 percent adolescents are of normal weight 10 8 7• 15 percent adolescents are overweight and 5 5 1 0 Underweight Normal Overweight Obese Body weight as per BMI
    21. 21. Health Problems• Highest percent of them complained of having Gastritis, bowel problem, common cold, diarrhea and weakness.
    22. 22. Results from guardian’s survey• About 50 percent of guardians have no information what their children are given at school for Tiffin• Approx 1/3 of the parents from urban societies do not have time to prepare Tiffin for their children• High percent of guardians, themselves buy junk food and soft drinks for children in every occasions and weekends• 60 percent of the guardians think that advertisement has highest effects on food preferences of children
    23. 23. Contd…..• 13 percent of guardians think that junk foods helps for children development• 32 percent have no idea what effect junk foods has on health. The maximum percent of the guardians think that giving junk foods sometimes as in once to twice a week if fine for children
    24. 24. Major Findings• Higher the income of the parents , higher is the consumption of junk foods.• Better the economic status of the family, higher is the consumption of junk foods• High percentages of the adolescents prefer junk foods than children.• Guardians lack the knowledge in the change in food’s nutritional value after processing and modification.
    25. 25. Contd….• Knowledge gap in understanding the actual contents and ingredients of junk foods and its real and long term impacts on health.• Canteen foods : mo: mo, chowmein, noodles, pakouda, chips, bre ad chops and soft drinks more dangerous than the packed foods .• High knowledge level and information BUT prevalence of ignorance in the feeding habits of the children in urban areas
    26. 26. Conclusion• There is strong relationship between diet and emergence of Non-communicable disease• Developing countries like Nepal is facing double burden of diseases as they are already facing malnutrition, diarrhea, infection and now they are also facing high increase in non- communicable disease
    27. 27. Contd….• More the consumption of junk foods more is the risk for Non –Communicable disease• Children and Adolescents are the most vulnerable to the so called modern trends of eating junk foods and cold drinks• The traditional staples food are being replaced by junk foods
    28. 28. Recommendations : On Government Level• Incorporate and prioritize nutrition as a cross- cutting issues in Government’s policies to form and implement policy to avert the growing epidemic and diet related complications in Nepal.• Use of artificial, synthetic additives in food items is high in junk foods. Hence, this should be limited within the standards of food laws.• There should be a clear policy related to advertisement and promotion of various junk foods/soft beverages and should bring out strict laws against the promotion of junk food items.
    29. 29. Recommendations : Policy implications• Advocacy and lobbying should be increased to formulate new plans and program and implement them against the faulty advertisement and hence try to control the misconceptions being created that junk foods are healthy for consumption.• There is a need of comprehensive food and nutrition plans/policies, schools extensive program and health programs
    30. 30. Contd..• There is a need of revise school level nutrition related curriculum so that student could get actual knowledge of nutrition which is very effective mode of knowledge sharing and could influence the eating pattern of family/household level as well
    31. 31. Recommendations: I/NGOsCBOs• NGO should incorporated nutrition related program by coordinating with Government and other NGO’s to avoid duplication and flow the nutrition related program effectively• Nutrition stakeholders, health personal, civil society groups and local leaders should increase awareness on the need for the scaling up nutrition actions and investments to prevent non-communicable diseases, promote consumer’s protection, food quality control, advocate for policy options and monitor implementation of nutrition related policies.
    32. 32. Recommendations: On School Level• Sufficient Food and nutrition knowledge that links to food and health should be included at all level of school education.• The study has raised the issues on the quality, healthiness, hygiene and safety of the college canteen food services and School Tiffin Services. Hence, college and schools should understand the importance of healthy diet in development of adolescent and children and collaborate with the food and nutrition expertise to provide the students with safe, hygienic and good quality food items.
    33. 33. Recommendations: On household/Parents level• Schools should introduce the policies of not allowing junk foods inside school including school canteen as junk free zone.• Never encourage students/Children to drink soft drinks and other preserved energy drinks.
    34. 34. Recommendations: Research, Resources and Knowledge Management• Need of sufficient data base on this sector has to be established.• Need to conduct research on how diet- related chronic diseases affect socio-economic prospects, prevalence of Life- style associated disease, Nutritional transition in Nepal and its effects to health, Effects of advertisement in Food habits and consumption pattern, Variation in consumption of junk foods and fruits/vegetables and many other research that associates food consumption and health.
    35. 35. References• P. Pingali, (2004), Westernization of Asian Diets and the transformation of food system: Implication for research and policy. ESA working paper no: 04-17, paper prepared for agriculture and development, economics division, FAO, Rome.•• WHO (2003), Diet, Nutrition and the prevention of chronic disease, WHO technical report series, 916, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.•• Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC) (2010), Prevalence of non-communicable disease in Nepal, hospital based study, NHRC and Nepal government, 1steditions’ printing Press, Kathmandu.•• WHO (2008), Our Cities, Our Health, Our Future, Acting in social determinants for health equity in urban settings, Paper to the WHO commission of social determinants of health from knowledge network on urban settings, WHO, Geneva.• FAO (2004), Globalization of food system in developing countries: impact on food security and nutrition and Nutrition paper 83, FAO, Rome.•• WHO, (2002), Globalization, Diets and Non-communicable disease, 20 Avenue, Appia, 1211, Geneva, Switzerland
    36. 36. • D. Helene ( 1990);Patterns of urban food consumption in developing countries, perspective from the 1990’s, Department of Nutrition, University of Montreal, FAO division , FAO , Rome.•• WHO (2005), Nutrition in adolescent – Issues and challenges for the health sector, Issues and adolescent health d development, 20 Avenue, 1211 Geneva, 27 Switzerland.• WHO (2006), Adolescent Nutrition: A selected food security and food supply, Agriculture and consumer protection department.•• FAO (2010), the impact of global change and urbanization on household food Security and food safety. Agriculture and consumer protection department, FAO, Rome.•• Dr. U. Aruna (2005), Junk Food Epidemic, Nepali Times, Kathmandu, Nepal.•• Sharma. I (1998), Trends in intake of ready to eat foods among urban children in Nepal, SCN News , 16:21-2•• Amuna.P, Zotor.F.B (15-18 August 2006), “ Epidemiological and Nutrition transition in developing countries: impact on human development, paper presented at the second African Nutritional Epidemiology Conference, Gimpa, Legon, Ghana.
    37. 37. • Musaiger.A.O, Bader.Z, Al-Roomi, K, D’Souza.R, ( 9th September 2011)” Dietary and Lifestyle habits among adolescents in Bahrain”, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain Center of studies and research, Kingdom of Bahrain•• Singh. A.K, Maheshwari. A, Sharma.N,K. Anand ( October 2006 ). “ Lifestyle Associated Risk Factors in Adolescents ”, Center for Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi and Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India.•• Ramborger.E ( October 2011), “ Bringing Agriculutre to the Table: How Agriculture and Food Can play role in improving Global Health and Preventing Chronic Disease ” Global Agriculture and Food policy, Issue Brief Series, The Chicago Council on Global Affairs, Chicago.•• Nepal: The downside of Urbanization (online) (cited 2011, December )• Available: <www.irinnews.org/printreport.aspx?reportid=93103>[ 2011, December]•• Schwefel.D( 2003) “Emerging Food related Health Problems in Globlization” Berlin•• Kaushik. J.S, Narang. M, Parakh.A( February 2011) “ Fast Food Consumption in Children ” Perspective, Volume 48, IndinaPerdiatrics, India.•• WHO , “ Should Adolescents be specifically targeted for Nutrition in Developing Countries? To address which Problems, and how? , Department of Nutrition, University de’ Montreal, Montreal (Que), Canade.•• Standing Committee on Nutrition(SCN) ( 2011), “ Nutrition and Non-Communicable disease: critical to take action and move now! United Nation System
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    39. 39. Thank you

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