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Fon 241 presentation

  1. 1. VITAMINS AND MINERALS SODIUM Ana Ramirez
  2. 2. NUTRIENT INFORMATION : SODIUM Sodium (Inorganic metal) is one of the most important elements in the human body. It is the most abundant cation in the extracellular fluid. Na is an component of (Sodium Chloride), it is about 40 % of salt. Dietary Guideline for American refers that:  1gram of salt = 400 mg sodium.  1 tsp salt = 2300 mg sodium. Tolerable Upper Intake level for sodium: Adults = 2300 mg/ day
  3. 3. NUTRIENT INFORMATION: SODIUM Sodium is common in salted foods, and it is found at high amount in processed foods. Most of the sodium in the diet comes from salt. Sodium is derived from salt added during food processing or added at the table or during cooking.  Unprocessed food ( Fruits, vegetables, milk and meat) contain least sodium. The lowest salt intakes are associated with diets that emphasize unprocessed foods, especially fruits, vegetables, and legumes.  An excellent source of this nutrients are milks, meat and vegetables.  A good source of this nutrient are fruits and grains. 
  4. 4. HOW WE PROCESS SODIUM? Sodium absorbed by small intestine (most absorption of this nutrient). Sodium travel in the bloodstream( sodium is transported in the blood) until is deposited by blood in the kidneys to be filters by them. Return in the bloodstream the exact amount the body needs. The rest is excreted by the body throught the urine and others mechanisms. Large intestine reabsorb and eliminate some minerals as sodium.
  5. 5. HOW WE PROCESS SODIUM? Cells in the kidneys release renin causing that the kidneys reabsorb sodium to restore BP and blood volumen . Renin activate Angiotensin. This increase the production of the hormone from adrenal gland called : Aldosterone. Aldosterone send signals the kidneys to retain more sodium, also stimulate absorption. Blood vessels constrict raising BP. Sodium is absorbed potassium is excreted.
  6. 6. NUTRIENT INFORMATION : SODIUM Sodium is stored outside cells membrane (sodium is an electrolyte) due selective permeability of cells membrane. Sodium is involved in important body functions:  Acid- Base balance.  Water Balance.  Transmission of nerve impulses.  Contraction of muscles.  It is a component in human secretions as: saliva, gastric and intestinal secretions, bile and pancreatic fluid.
  7. 7. ASSESSMENT OF NUTRIENTS STATUS IN THE BODY. The normal sodium level in serum is 135 to 145 mmol/L. A high sodium level (toxicity & excessive intake) in serum is called Hypernatremia. Sign and symptoms of excess of sodium are edema and hypertension. A low sodium level (deficiency) in serum is called Hyponatremia. Sign and Symptoms of sodium deficiency includes vomiting, heavy sweating and others.
  8. 8. ASSESSMENT OF NUTRIENTS STATUS IN THE BODY. High salt (Sodium Chloride) intake is the primary factor of Hypertension (High blood pressure) Sodium impact blood pressure. High Sodium is associated with calcium excretion, influence Osteoporosis (weakness of bones)
  9. 9. TREATMENT PLAN Sodium us used in some medical treatment as: Sodium bicarbonate: (immediate antiacid effect on the stomach, but shorter action at intestines). It is prescribed to treat acidosis, gastric acidity, peptic ulcer and indigestion. Sodium Salicylate: analgesic, antipyretic, antirheumatic. Prescribed to relieve pain and fever. Sodium sulfate: prescribed to promote evacuation of the bowel, it has laxative effect.
  10. 10. TREATMENT PLAN Athlete are in risk of loose sodium.  Salt tablets are not recommended because too much salt can induce dehydratation.  Beverages and food rich in sodium and glucose help to restore sodium levels. Non dietary advise that we can provide is make exercise because this help the body to restore sodium levels. Also, It help to maintain a healthy heart. 
  11. 11. WORKS CITED Mosby’s Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health. Dictionary. 6th ed. Elsevier Mosby. 2005. Davis, F. A. Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. Ed 21. Philadelphia. 2009. Whitney, EN, Rolfes, SR. Understanding Nutrition. 12 th Ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thompson; 2007. Sodium (Chloride) http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/sodium/
  12. 12. QUESTIONS 1. Sodium toxicity and excessive intake are associated with the following conditions: a)Hypotension b) Hypertension c) diabetes d) Cancer. 2. What are the daily value for sodium? 3. A deficiency of sodium is called: 4. Sodium is absorbed in ____________ and travels in ______________ to the_______________ to be filter by them and regulate level of sodium in food. 5. Mention 3 of the majors functions of sodium in the body.
  13. 13. THE END.

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