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Conjunctions
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  • 1. CONJUNCTIONS
  • 2. DEFINITION OF CONJUNCTIONS
    • Conjunction is a word we used to join or link two or more
    • sentences together or two words within the same sentence.
    • The most command conjunctions in English are: and, but, or
    • nor, for
      • Please bring music and snacks
      • Maria is tall but her friend is short
    • There are 3 classes of conjunction:
        • Coordinate Conjunction
        • Subordinate Conjunction
        • Correlative Conjunction
  • 3. COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS
    • There are 7 coordinate conjunctions . They are short, simple words and have only 2 or 3 letters.
    • For example:
      • Two words : cake and muffin
      • Two phrases: in the car or on the bike
      • Two independent clauses: You must study, or you won’t success.
    F A N B O Y S FOR AND NOR BUT OR YET SO
  • 4.
    • A coordinate conjunction joins two equal parts of speech (words or independent clauses).
    • +
    • e.g: I like tea and coffee
    • *the conjunction “ and ” joins the sentences: “ I like tea ” with ‘ I like coffee”
    • A coordinate conjunction always come between the words or clauses that they join.
    • e.g: I painted the walls but Shila painted the woodwork.
    • * but is a coordinate conjunction joining clauses of equal significance in the sentence.
    IC IC
  • 5. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS
    • Subordinate conjunctions are used to join a subordinate dependent clause to a main clause.
    • Common subordinate conjunctions are:
    • after, although, as, because, before, if, provided, since,
    • until, unless, than, whenever, wherever, while, where, when.
    • e.g.: They are sleeping because they are tired
    • “ The Subordinate Conjunctions Song”
    • Subordinate Conjunctions I hate and I abhor
    • There’s after , although , as , because and before
    • If , provided , since , and unless , until , and than ,
    • There’s whenever , wherever , and while , and, where , and when
  • 6.
    • A subordinate conjunction joins a subordinate [dependent] clause to a main [independent] clause.
    • +
    • e.g.: I fell on my face after I tripped on the stairs
    • A subordinate or dependent clause cannot stand alone . It depends on a main or independent clause
    • A subordinate conjunction always come at the beginning of a subordinate clause.
    Independent clause (IC) Dependent clause (DC)
  • 7.
    • However, a subordinate clause can sometimes come after and sometimes before a main clause.
    • Thus, two structures are possible:
    • + = complex
    • I fell on my face after I tripped on the stairs.
    • + , = complex
    • after I tripped on the stairs , I fell on my face.
    IC DC DC IC
  • 8. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS
    • Correlative conjunctions are always used in pairs .
    • [either…or], [both…and], [neither..nor],
    • [not only..but also], [whether..of]
    • Example:
        • Both Fairuz and I are allergic to seafood.
        • Either Mom or Dad will pick you up.
        • Faizal is either in Ipoh or in Penang.