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Enduring heroes

  1. 1. Enduring Heroes Reprinted with Permission from Intel CorporationUnit SummaryGreek mythology is referenced in our everyday lives. We wear Nike* shoes, shop for At a GlanceMidas* mufflers, and commend people for doing Herculean feats. But who were Grade Level: 6-8these people with special powers? Students read stories about the heroes of Greek Subjects: Creative Writing,mythology and compare the characteristics of Greek heroes to modern heroes. Social StudiesStudents explore the question, What is a hero? and consider how the definition may Topics: Greek Mythology, Creative Writing, Greekchange across time and culture. They then select a contemporary hero and write a Civilizationmyth based on the hero. The myths are written as digital books that can be shared Higher-Order Thinking:with younger students or read to senior citizens as a service-learning project. This Decision Making, Analysiscould be done as an integrated unit on Greek civilization. Key Learnings: Greek Gods and Goddesses, Greek Heroes,Curriculum-Framing Questions Contemporary Heroes, Writing q Essential Question a Myth What is a hero? Time Needed: 3 weeks q Unit Questions Background: From the What meanings do the Greek myths have for us today? Classroom in Utah, United How do you write a myth? States q Content Questions Who were the ancient Greek heroes and what were their stories? What are the qualities of a Greek hero? Who are modern heroes? Things You Need AssessmentAssessment Processes StandardsView how a variety of student-centered assessments are used in the Enduring ResourcesHeroes Unit Plan. These assessments help students and teachers set goals; monitorstudent progress; provide feedback; assess thinking, processes, performances, andproducts; and reflect on learning throughout the learning cycle.Instructional ProceduresWeek One: Heroes in History and MythIntroduce the unit by posing the Essential Question to students, What is a hero? Have students record their own ideas ina journal. Then, hold a whole-class discussion around the question asking students to give examples of heroes in theirlives. Use chart paper to record all definitions. Begin to generate a list of contemporary heroes. Explain to students thatthey will be learning about classical and contemporary heroes and reexamining their definition as they read about theheroes of the past and present.Begin with a discussion of Greek myths. Show the presentation to gauge students’ previous understanding about myths.Allow time for students to write and discuss the prompts in the presentation. After they view the presentation, explainthat for Greeks, myths are traditional narratives that are passed down to convey commonly held beliefs about naturalphenomena, the creation of the world, historical events, moral lessons, religious practices, and proper behavior. Askstudents if they have family stories that have been passed down through generations. Ask students to describe thepurpose of their stories.Select some Greek myths about heroes. Be sure that the stories you select are age and reading-level appropriate. Thesemight include stories* about Hercules, Theseus, Perseus, Atalanta, Jason, Bellerophon, and Odysseus. Assign stories tosmall reading groups. Decide if groups will read more than one story. If done over multiple days, each group could reada few stories. Instruct students to create charts that show a characters name and the characters heroic characteristics.Have students choose roles, such as note-taker (keeps the character chart), storyteller (summarizes the story to the restof the class), and presenter (presents the chart to the class). Group members should take turns reading parts of thestory or each student can read the story individually then hold a group discussion about the story.
  2. 2. After each group has read a story, ask each storyteller to summarize the story, and then ask the presenter to explainwho the hero of the story is and what makes the character a hero. Keep a master list on chart paper with the hero’sname and characteristics.Next, look back at the class’s original definition of a hero. Referring to the list of the Greek heroes’ characteristics,discuss what the stories reveal about Greek culture, and discuss whether the Greeks would have a different concept ofwhat a hero is than we do. Have students write their own definition of a hero in their journals. Have students share theirdefinitions in pairs and then ask students to come to a consensus on a definition of a Greek hero as a class. Record thedefinition on the chart paper. Keep this definition visible throughout the unit.Week TwoHeroes of the Past and PresentAsk the Unit Question, What meanings do the Greek myths have for us today? Discuss how the characteristics of Greekheroes differ from the heroes that we admire today. Add to the list of contemporary heroes.Explain that Greek heroes are not always what we, today, might consider good role models. In some cases, their actionsmight seem violent and deceitful, but a deeper look at what they did reveals their true motives, which were usually whatthe Greeks admired. For example, explain that Perseus decapitated Medusa; however, one of his motives was loyalty tohis family. Still, many heroes of the past possess the traits of physical strength and courage in the face of danger. Havestudents record their thoughts to the following question in their journals, Why have our definitions of what a hero ischanged over time? Have students share their opinions in pairs.Heroes in Our TimesAsk students to share their last journal entries in a whole class discussion. Have students name personal heroes andexplain how their heroes’ character traits match up with the list the class created about the Greek heroes. Have studentsrecord these traits in their journal.In groups of three, allow students go to the Heroism in Action Thinkquest* and investigate at least three contemporaryheroes. Have the class compare the heroes they studied, and revisit and alter, if necessary, their contemporarydefinitions of a hero. Discuss the changing definition of hero across time and culture. Add to the list of heroes. Reviewthe list and discuss the different types of heroes on the list. The list may include celebrities. Discuss the differencebetween a hero and a celebrity and how a celebrity might be a hero.Explain to students that they are going to choose one hero and write the hero’s story as a myth. They should choosesomeone that they admire. This hero can be from the present or the past. Have students consider the following: q Qualities that make the person great q How the qualities were instilled q What drives the person to accomplish heroic actions q What makes the person a heroDecide if students will be confined by a particular culture or time span. If not, encourage them to select individuals fromdifferent fields and cultures. Suggest some of the great figures of the twentieth century which may include Gandhi,Martin Luther King, Jr., Nelson Mandela, Mother Theresa, César Chávez, Anne Frank, Jackie Robinson, the Dalai Lama,Thomas Edison, and Rosa Parks. Other such figures, perhaps lesser known, are Rigoberta Menchu, Medgar Evers, RachelCarson, Helen Caldecott, and Jane Goodall. Tell students they can also choose someone from their personal life as well.Show students how they can use the Web sites listed in the Resources section for selecting and researching their heroes.Provide time for students to research and choose an appropriate hero. Conduct a class or small-group brainstorm togenerate more ideas.Explain that each student should focus on the following research questions: q What qualities made the hero heroic? q What were the challenges the hero faced q How did the hero overcome challenges? q How did heroism change the hero’s life?Explain that if students choose a hero in their personal life, an interview may be necessary to gather the neededinformation. Show students how to use the true heroes guide as they document their findings in their journals.Week ThreeExamining a MythAsk the Unit Question, How do you write a myth? Tell students that in order to write their own myths, they need tounderstand the structure of a myth. Use one of the myths that the students read and as a class, deconstruct the mythusing the myth handout. Have students record the following in their journals: q How the main character is introduced q How the situation is explained q Description of the main challenge
  3. 3. q How the main challenge is met q The outcome of the the main challengeHave students analyze myths, using the framework from the book The Heros Journey: A Guide to Literature and Life, byReg Harris and Susan Thompson. Explain to students that The Hero’s Journey depicts a pattern for myths and for life andincludes three main stages: q First stage: The character faces separation from a familiar world. q Second stage: The character faces initiation and transformation. The character’s old ways of thinking and behaving are changed or destroyed, and the character experiences a new level of awareness, skill, and freedom. q Third Stage: After meeting the challenges for initiation, the character returns to his or her world. With the return, the character is more capable and confident, and is treated as a hero by the community.As the class deconstructs the myth, discuss some of the common characteristics of myths. For example, discuss howgods and goddesses in myths appear superhuman and experience human emotions. Point out that myths often includemagic, and review how gods and goddesses sometimes show up in disguise.As an option, have each student group deconstruct another myth for more experience.Creating a Modern Day MythAfter students have an understanding of how myths are written, explain the process for writing their own modern mythusing their chosen character. It should follow the pattern of the hero’s journey and include the characteristics of mythsthat have been discussed. As a resource, tell students to use Mythography* to find descriptions of Greek gods andgoddesses to assist in defining character traits. Explain the format used for the myths they create is a digital book thatinclude graphics and animation. Show examples. Have students choose an audience, such as younger students, family,or senior citizens.Before they begin writing, ask students to fill out the goals section of the writing self-assessment. Instruct students touse their note cards and the myth planning guide as prewriting tools. Demonstrate how this is used with the mythplanning example. As you take students through the steps of creating a myth, develop a rubric as a class. Use theexample project rubric as a guide. Explain different aspects of the assignment and show examples. Assist students indefining the quality traits that should be included in the rubric and then differentiate each level accordingly. To helpstudents develop their myths based on the framework they learned about earlier, use the myth storyboard. Show themthe myth storyboard example, and then discuss and add criteria to the project rubric.Make sure students use the project rubric to guide the creation of the digital books. When students finish drafts of theirmyths, ask them use the writing self-assessment to think about their work in preparation for meeting with their writinggroups. Have students write, peer conference, and revise the myths before putting them into digital format. Conductindividual student conferences to give feedback and suggestions before the final books are due. The myth example canbe used as an exemplar.When completed, have students share their myths with the chosen audience and use the rubric to self-assess their work.Discovering Your JourneyDiscuss how the hero’s journey is reflected in the books we read, the television shows we watch, and the movies we see.Encourage students who are interested to create a wiki* about the role of heroes in the lives of today’s teenagers. Givethem the wiki rubric to help them guide their work.As a final reflection activity, ask students to think about their own lives and a situation when they took the hero’sjourney. Explain that students are to consider a challenge or a change that they have faced. For example, this could bemoving to a new school, joining a sport’s team, or making a new friend. If this is difficult, they can write about a friendor family member who experienced the hero’s journey.Have each student write a short reflective piece about their hero’s journeys in their journals. Ask them to consider theEssential Question again, What is a hero? and describe how their thinking has changed since the beginning of the unit.Encourage students to examine the self-growth and discovery that resulted from their journey. This can be done ashomework.Prerequisite Skills q Keyboarding q Word processing q File management q Basic Internet use q Citation of electronic sourcesDifferentiated InstructionResource Student q Use myths that are written at an appropriate reading level q Create a limited list of contemporary heroes, and preselect reading and research materials
  4. 4. Gifted Student q Have the student write a myth by rewriting a Greek myth and placing a contemporary hero in the Greek myth that would represent the modern day equivalentEnglish Language Learner q Allow the student to read and research in the student’s first language but require the writing to be done in EnglishCreditsJonathan Ostenson participated in the Intel® Teach Program, which resulted in this idea for a classroom project. A teamof teachers expanded the plan into the example you see here.*Legal Information | Privacy Policy ©Intel Corporation
  5. 5. Designing Effective Projects: Enduring HeroesFrom the ClassroomFinding the Technology FitSince he started computing with Ataris and Apples as a student in junior high school, Jon Ostenson has had a naturalaffinity for technology. When he started teaching high school English, however, Jon wondered whether computers werereally essential in his English classroom. “I used to think they generally belonged in the math and science domains,” hesays. “but I’ve found computer technology to be invaluable. It’s really basic, but technology has helped composition riseto a new level.” One fundamental difference is in writing fluency, he notes. “When writing volume increases as it doeswhen kids compose on the computer, it basically gives you a lot more to work with. Composing and revising are so muchbetter--these kids are expressing themselves and writing as if its second nature.”When the Intel® Teach Program course was offered for Timpview High School teachers in Provo, Utah, Jon was eager tosee how he could incorporate technology to enhance writing and thinking in new ways. He chose to work on a tried-andtrue Greek mythology unit during the curriculum course, which became “Enduring Heroes.”Heroes Across TimeIn “Enduring Heroes,” students consider whether the hero archetype has persisted or changed from the classical Greekperiod to modern day. During their course of study, students read from Heroes, Gods and Monsters of the Greek Myths(by Bernard Evslin, Bantam Books, Inc., 1984). After they enjoy the exploits of Perseus (Medusa’s foil) and othermythical heroes, students rewrite the stories as expository articles, and then publish them in a newspaper. Jon notes,“You give time to the things you value most. Making the newspaper was really worth it instructionally, but it was anarduous task, layout was really hard. Desktop publishing has just changed everything. Publishing software really helpedus make better newspapers more easily, and with moreprofessional results.” Being able to make polished productscaused students to rise to the occasion in terms of their writing efforts, Jon says. “Kids are very engaged and interestedin expressing themselves well. Projects like this teach kids composition as well as technical skills."A Composition Tip from JonMicrosoft® Word software lets the user select text and then insert a pop-up comment that relates to it. Jon has hisstudents use this little tool when they engage in peer editing. “I rotate kids around eight computers and have them readeach other’s work. They can insert critical feedback in another student’s document, and read what other editors havewritten as well. The focus of editing has shifted to the content, the ideas, rather than just mechanics.”Coming Soon to a Theater Near YouWhen asked what lies ahead, Jon describes an interest in extending narrative composition beyond the printed page. “I’dlike to work with film. I can imagine teaching kids the cinematic and literary parallels in storytelling. Films are a way oftelling stories through different media. It’s very interactive, and it helps anchor the same important ideas and foundationskills I try to address in literature and writing.”
  6. 6. Designing Effective Projects: Enduring HeroesAssessment PlanAssessment Plan Before project work begins Students work on projects and After project work is completed complete tasks q Journals q Gauging q Journals q Myth Planning q Rubric q Unit Reflection q Questioning Student Needs q Questioning Guide Presentation q Self- q Myth q Self- Assessment Storyboard Assessment q Teacher- q Wiki Rubric Student q Peer Conferences Conferences q RubricJournal writing is used throughout the unit to respond to informal questions as well as Curriculum-Framing Questions. Questioningis also used throughout the unit to spark discussion, monitor learning, and promote higher-order thinking.The unit begins with tapping students’ prior knowledge about mythology with the presentation to gauge student needs. Teachersreview the myth planning guide as well as a myth storyboard to monitor student understanding and progress during the unit.Students use the writing self-assessment form to set goals for their writing and to think about their myths before meeting withtheir writing group. A project rubric is used by students and the teacher to guide and assess student work. Peer conferencing andstudent-teacher conferences are conducted to assess student work along the way and give students an opportunity to revise andedit work before turning in a final product. Students who choose to create a wiki use the wiki rubric to monitor their work. Areflection is given at the end of the unit to allow students to reflect on the unit and their understanding of a hero’s journey andhow it relates to them personally.
  7. 7. Designing Effective Projects: Enduring HeroesContent Standards and ObjectivesTargeted Content Standards and BenchmarksUtah Education StandardsLanguage ArtsStandard 2: Students read functional, informational, and literary texts from different periods, cultures, and genres.Objective 3: Demonstrate competency in reading and interpreting LITERARY text. q Recognize the features of each literary genre to increase understanding and appreciation of literature, e.g., myth, essay, poetry, young adult literature, classics.Standard 10: Students write functional, informational, and literary texts for various purposes, audiences, and situations.Objective 3: Demonstrate competency in writing LITERARY text. q Use writing process strategies to construct a literary text, e.g., myth, essay, poetry. q Use the features of each literary genre, e.g., character, plot, meter, setting, chronology. q Use the elements of literature, e.g., theme, metaphor, symbolism, types of conflict, dialogue.Social Studies (World History)Standard 2: Students will comprehend the contributions of classical civilizations.Investigate the purpose and influence ofreligions and philosophies on classical civilizations of Greece, Rome, China, and India. q Examine the essential elements of the belief systems of Greek mythology, Judaism, Christianity, Confucianism, Buddhism, Hinduism, and IslamStudent ObjectivesStudents will be able to: q Define heroism in Greek culture and modern times q Evaluate how heroism changes or stays the same over time q Evaluate contemporary heroes q Conduct research effectively, using the information literacy process q Write a myth with a contemporary hero
  8. 8. Designing Effective Projects: Enduring HeroesResourcesMaterials and ResourcesPrinted Materials q Harris, R. & Thompson, S. (1997). The heros journey: A guide to literature and life. Napa, CA: Ariane Publications. q Low, A. (1985). The Macmillan book of Greek gods and heroes. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.Internet ResourcesGreek Mythology q Greek Heroes www.mythweb.com/heroes/heroes.html* Clearly written and animated stories about Greek heroes q MythNet http://infotoronto.com/mythnet/mythnet/html/index.html* Information about Olympian gods and Greek heroes q Mythography www.loggia.com/myth/gods.html* Descriptions of Greek gods and goddessesContemporary Heroes q Academy of Achievement www.achievement.org/autodoc/pagegen/mainmenu.html* A Museum of Living History that organizes biographies of achievers by category of contribution q American Library Association, Great Web Sites for Kids www.ala.org/parentspage/greatsites/people.html#a* Offers a “Biographies” section with a comprehensive list of biography Web sites q Biography Dictionary www.s9.com/biography* A searchable database of biographies q Biography.com www.biography.com* A general resource about famous people q Distinguished Women of Past and Present www.DistinguishedWomen.com* Biographies of important women q National Womens History Project www.nwhp.org* An excellent resource on womens history, including stories of many remarkable and heroic women q The Hero’s Journey www.yourheroicjourney.com/Journey.shtml* A thorough explanation of the hero’s journeyWriting Myths q Writing with Writers http://teacher.scholastic.com/writewit/mff/mythswshop_index.htm* An online myth writing workshop with an authorTechnology—Hardware q Computers for reading myths, conducting Internet research about contemporary heroes and Greek heroes, creating electronic books, and sharing electronic books q Internet connection for access to Web resources for researchTechnology—Software q Presentation software is used by students to create electronic books q Encyclopedia on CD-ROM may be used for research purposes
  9. 9. What Do You Know about Myths?
  10. 10. Write: What do you think of whenyou hear the following names. • Zeus • Venus • Cupid • Hercules • Achilles
  11. 11. Brainstorm and Discuss: What myths do you know?(sample responses)• The Twelve Labors of Hercules• White Buffalo Woman• The Cyclops• Arachne
  12. 12. Which of the following stories aremyths? What makes them a myth?• Theseus and the Minotaur• The Odyssey• Pygmalion• The Tortoise and the Hare• Pandora’s Box• Romeo and Juliet• The Trojan Horse• Paul Bunyan• The Coyote
  13. 13. Make a Venn Diagram: What arethe characteristics of each of thekinds of stories below? Myths Fables Have gods and Have a moral goddesses Explain nature Have supernatural Often written events Have animals by a specific Handed down person over time Have folk heroes Tall Tales Old Stories
  14. 14. Think about These Questions• Why do people have myths?• Why do different cultures have similar myths?• Are myths important?
  15. 15. Creating a Myth Planning GuideDirections: You will be writing a myth about a modern-day hero in the style of a Greek myth. Use thefollowing as a guide to start planning your myth.General questions about the contemporary hero’s life and achievement(s):Question Contemporary My Myth (Based on Greek Mythology)Hero• Who is the hero?• What is the hero famous for?Age• How old is the hero?Hero’s Qualities• What are the hero’s qualities?• What are the hero’s symbols?Family• Who is in the hero’s family?Location• Where does the story take place?Characters• Who are the other characters?• What gods or goddesses represent the characters?• What are their features?Challenge• What is the challenge?Obstacles• What gets in the hero’s way?OvercomingChallenges• How does the hero overcome the challenges?Results• What are the results of the hero’s achievements?
  16. 16. Creating a Myth: StoryboardDirections: Use your myth planning guide to create a storyboard for your myth. The framework of your storyshould be based on the hero’s journey. Use the questions to help you. Separation The Call - What causes the person to start the journey? - How is the hero called to the adventure? - Is the call something hoped for or dreaded? - What is the purpose of the journey? - Where does the journey begin? The Threshold (with guardians, helpers, and mentor) - What special friends or helpers does the hero have? - Does the hero receive magical help, advice, or a good luck charm from a helper? - Does anyone help prepare the hero for the journey? - Does the helper appear throughout the story? - Who is guarding the threshold? - What obstacles does the hero face before the hero is ready to begin the journey? Initiation and Transformation The Challenges - What are the person’s fears? - What challenges does the hero face? - How does the person overcome the challenges? - What assistance does the hero receive to overcome these trials? The Abyss - What is the greatest challenge that the hero faces? - How does the hero face the challenge? - What does the challenge mean for the hero?
  17. 17. The Transformation - What qualities does the hero develop as a result of the experience? - What does the hero leave behind?The Revelation - How has the hero changed as a result of the experience? - How is the hero different?The Atonement - How does the hero accept the new powers? - What has the hero learned as a result of the journey?The Return (to the known world)The Return (with a gift) - What is the hero’s gift? - What does the hero do with the gift upon returning? - Does the hero share the experience and wisdom gained with others? - How do others receive the hero upon the hero’s return? - Does the hero come back to everyday life? - Does anything get in the way of returning to a normal life?
  18. 18. Enduring Heroes Writing Self-Assessment My Goals for My Myth Think about your past writing and write at least one goal for each area. Ideas: How will you make your myth about an interesting or important topic? Craft: What new writing techniques will you try? 1. 2. Creativity: What risks will you take? Conventions: What specific areas of spelling, punctuation, capitalization, or Standard English will you work on improving? 1. 2. Myth First Draft Self-Assessment1. Goals: How well did you achieve your goals? Ideas Craft Creativity Conventions 2. Organization: Do the different parts of your myth contribute to the meaning?
  19. 19. BeginningMiddleEnding3. Style: Does your writing draw readers into your myth?ConcreteNouns andVerbsSentenceVarietyConversationFlow4. Conventions: Have you proofread your myth for spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and Standard English?5. Mark the sections of your myth that you are especially proud of.6. Mark in a different way the sections of your myth that you are not happy with.7. What questions will you ask your group members about your myth?a.b.c.d.
  20. 20. Myth Rubric 4 3 2 1Characteristics My myth shows originality My myth shows some My myth lacks My myth shows noof Myth and creativity. originality and creativity. originality and originality and uses creativity. others ideas. I include many I include some unexpected elements, unexpected elements, My myth is predictable My myth has no such as novel situations, such as novel situations, and/or includes resemblance to the unpredictable events, and unpredictable events, or unexpected elements contemporary hero’s unusual characters, which unusual characters, that do not fit into the accomplishments, are realistically integrated which are integrated into story. and it is not written as into the myth and the myth and contribute a Greek myth. contribute effectively to its to its overall meaning. My myth has no overall meaning. resemblance to the My myth does not My myth has some contemporary hero’s include Greek gods My myth interprets a resemblance to the accomplishments, or it and goddesses. contemporary hero and contemporary hero’s is not written as a the hero’s heroic act, and accomplishments and is Greek myth. My myth does not is written as a Greek written as a Greek myth. follow the hero’s myth. My myth includes one journey. My myth includes some or two Greek gods and My myth includes several Greek gods and goddesses, but it does Greek gods and goddesses and portrays not portray their goddesses and portrays some of their characteristics their characteristics characteristics accurately. accurately. accurately. My myth follows four My myth follows all eight My myth follows six or or five of the steps of steps of the structure of seven steps of the hero’s the hero’s journey, but the hero’s journey journey correctly. they may not be correctly and accurately. correctly identified.Writing My writing is clear and My writing is relatively My writing is My writing is unclear lively; the reader is clear and interesting to somewhat unclear or and hard to follow. engaged throughout. the reader. not very interesting to the reader. I show no evidence of I show evidence of I show some evidence of prewriting exercises, prewriting exercises, prewriting exercises, one I show little evidence drafts, peer editing, drafts, peer editing, and draft, or peer editing, of prewriting exercises, and/or revisions. revisions based on and I have made some drafts, peer editing, feedback. revisions based on and/or revisions. feedback.Organization My myth is clearly My myth is organized in My myth is not My myth isand Mechanics organized in a way that a way that contributes to organized, and the disorganized and contributes to the the meaning. disorganization takes incomprehensible. meaning. away from the My myth contains a meaning. My myth’s setting and My myth contains a well- developed setting, and characters need to be developed setting, and characters are My myth’s setting and developed more fully. characters are described described. characters are not fully in detail. developed and lack I used Inconsistent I used inconsistent description. formatting that I used consistent formatting but this does interferes with my formatting throughout my not interfere with the I used inconsistent presentation. meaning of my formatting that detracts
  21. 21. presentation. presentation. from my presentation. I did not proofread my myth, and the errors I proofread my myth, and I proofread my myth, but I proofread my myth a significantly detract there are no errors. it includes some errors little but it includes from the meaning of that do not detract from many noticeable errors my presentation. the meaning. that detract from the meaning of my presentation.Visual I use visuals to enhance I use visuals to represent I chose visuals that do I chose visuals thatPresentation and clearly represent my my myth. The visuals not adequately are weak in myth. The visuals are show organization and represent my myth. representing my well-organized and show some creativity. The visuals need myth, and the creativity. improvement in organization is The images create an organization. unorganized. The images create a atmosphere or tone that distinct atmosphere or matches some parts of The images add to an Images are not used, tone that matches the myth. atmosphere or tone or they do not create different parts of the but they need an appropriate myth. improvement. atmosphere or tone.
  22. 22. Your name: ______________________________________Peer reviewer’s name: _______________________________________Title of project: ______________________________________Two compliments about the work are: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________Two suggestions about the work are: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________Note: Have the peer reviewer use “I” statements for this step: • I would like to know more about… • I am not sure what this means.... • I would like to know more details about....Other ideas or comments: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________Note: Keep this form to refer to as you revise your work.
  23. 23. Enduring Heroes Wiki Rubric 4 3 2 1Content: Unity All the content in All the content in Most of the Some of the my wiki supports my wiki relates to content in my content in my a theme that the role of wiki relates to the wiki is only says something heroes in the role of heroes in vaguely related interesting and lives of today’s the lives of to the role of important about teenagers and is today’s heroes in the the role of covered teenagers, but I lives of today’s heroes in the thoroughly in my include irrelevant teenagers. lives of today’s wiki’s pages. information in my teenagers. wiki’s pages.Content: My wiki My wiki includes My wiki includes My wiki includesBreadth thoroughly adequate some information only superficial covers a variety information about about the topic, information about of aspects and the topic. but some the topic. points of view important about the topic. concepts are missing.Content: Depth My wiki includes My wiki includes My wiki includes My wiki includes logical, meaningful some mostly meaningful connections, connections, information I got connections, inferences, or inferences, or from other inferences, and conclusions that I conclusions that I sources, and my conclusions have drawn from have drawn, but connections, related to the accurate and they are not all inferences, and theme that I have timely logical, and the conclusions are drawn from information about information they not supported by accurate and the topic of my came from is good information. timely wiki. questionable. information.Organization My home page My home page My home page My home page is describes the explains the topic introduces the too specific or purpose of the of the wiki, and topic of the wiki, too broad, and wiki and engages additional pages but additional additional pages readers in the are organized to pages may not do not seem content while elaborate on the be organized to connected to my additional pages topic. Links help connect with the theme. Links do expand on readers move topic. Links may not help readers important through the connect readers understand the concepts. Links information in a to pages in ways topic in a help readers reasonable way. that do not make reasonable move through sense. order. the information in an easy and logical way.Writing: Style I use concrete, I use clear I try to use clear My writing is vivid language language and language and vague and and technical technical appropriate confusing. I do elements, such elements, such technical not use technical as bullets and as bullets and elements, but elements to numbers, to numbers, to sometimes, my communicate convey convey writing is effectively. information in an information predictable or
  24. 24. interesting, accurately and confusing. concise way. concisely.Writing: The writing in my The writing in my The writing in my The writing in myConventions wiki is free of wiki is free of wiki has some wiki has so many spelling errors, spelling errors, spelling errors, errors that punctuation, and punctuation and punctuation, and readers have capitalization capitalization capitalization difficulty errors, and errors, and errors, or understanding nonstandard nonstandard nonstandard what I am English, except English. I may English that saying. where rules are attempt to break interferes with broken rules to enhance the meaning I am effectively to meaning, but my trying to convey. communicate efforts are not meaning. completely successful.Appearance I use Web I use Web I use Web I use Web features, such as features, such as features, such as features, such as graphic and text graphic and text graphic and text graphic and text elements, to elements, to elements, that elements, that make information make information are sometimes are confusing more engaging, more engaging. confusing and and distracting. meaningful, and distract from the easy to purpose of the understand. wiki.
  25. 25. Name ________________________ Hero_________________________ True Hero GuideHeroesBiography Journal NotesAs you read your biography or autobiography, keep a journal and record… • Connections: How do you connect with this individual? Why did you select this individual? What strikes you about their life? Their childhood? Their challenges? How they faced their challenges? • Questions: If you could ask this person anything, what would it be? List any questions you’d like answered to clarify anything you are not sure of. • Visualizing: Walk through life through this person’s eyes…what do you see? • Inferring: What do you infer about this person? • Big Ideas: Simply…what is the big idea about this individual? • Synthesizing: How has reading this autobiography or biography changed your way of thinking? The way you see things?Journal SampleDate Strategy Observation/Comment1/10 Connections I connect with this individual because she came from a broken home and my parents are divorced. I totally understand how she felt that she had to become the parent to take care of her younger siblings and had to be the “adult” because her mom was so depressed. I also worry about money like she did.1/11 Big Ideas She overcame great obstacles to go to college, become a doctor, and help others.1/12 Visualizing I see her watching all the other teenagers go to the dances…wishing she could go. Seeing all the other teenagers with their designer clothes…and her with the clothes from Goodwill…and the look in her eyes when her mom actually bought her a brand-new dress for graduation.
  26. 26. Research NotesAs you research books, journals, encyclopedias, or Internet resources, makesure to… • Correctly cite your sources • Obtain information on o Childhood – Where were they born? When were they born? What was their childhood like? Their family? o Contribution – Why are they considered a hero? What did they contribute to society? o Challenges – What challenges did they face? How did they meet them?Research SampleSource InformationBiographical Dictionary - She was born on Tuesday, November 1, 1956, inhttp://www.s9.com/biography/ Phoenix, Arizona. She was the oldest of 10 children.My Hero - She had to drop out of school when she was in thehttp://www.myhero.com/home.asp eighth grade because she had to get a job when her father left the family. She worked in the factories all day and then would come home to help her mom take care of her siblings.
  27. 27. Examining a MythChoose a Greek myth to deconstruct. First, answer these general questions about the myth: 1. Who is the hero? 2. Who are the other characters? 3. What is the setting? 4. What is the main story line? 5. What is the challenge? 6. What obstacles does the hero face? 7. How does the hero overcome the challenges?Now, take a look at the myth from the framework of the hero’s journey (based on the book, The HerosJourney: A Guide to Literature and Life, by Reg Harris and Susan Thompson, and adapted from the Website www.yourheroicjourney.com/Journey.shtml).In Greek myths, the heroes undergo a journey that culminates in them becoming heroes. Thistransformation can be referred to as the hero’s journey. Use the framework of the hero’s journey to analyzea myth. The guiding questions will help you with this. SEPARATION (from the known)The Call: This is when the hero is called to the adventure. The hero may be called in different ways. Thehero may choose the adventure or be dragged into it. - What causes the person to leave? - What form does the call take? o Something is taken from the character, the character’s family, or the character’s society, and the character seeks to get it back. o The character senses something missing in life and wants to find what is missing. o The character wants to save or restore honor to the character’s country. o The character seeks to win the rights of something not permitted in society. - Is the call something hoped for or dreaded?The Threshold: (with guardians, helpers, and mentor): This is the “jumping off point” for the adventure, fromthe known to the unknown, from security to challenge and danger. Sometimes when crossing the threshold,people, beings, or situations are encountered that block the passage. These “threshold guardians” mayprotect the character by keeping the character from journeys that the character is not prepared for, but whenthe character is ready, they step aside. Also at the threshold are helpers who provide assistance anddirection, and may even provide a divine gift. These helpers may serve as guides who assist and help thehero stay focused. - What special friends or helpers does the hero have? - Does the hero receive magical help, advice, or a good luck charm from a helper? - Does anyone help prepare the hero for the journey? - Does the helper appear throughout the story? - Who is guarding the threshold? - What obstacles does the person face before being ready to begin the journey?
  28. 28. INITIATION AND TRANSFORMATIONThe Challenges: The journey into the unknown begins after passing the threshold. Along the journey, thehero faces many challenges. As the journey progresses, the challenges become more and more difficult. Byfacing these challenges and succeeding, the hero changes and grows. These challenges includedifferentiating real helpers from “tempters,” who try to steer the hero off the path with fear, doubt, ordistraction. They may disguise themselves as friends or counselors. The hero needs to learn to recognizetrue helpers. The challenges faced by the hero always reflect the hero’s fears and weaknesses , and it is upto the hero to confront the challenge and conquer. - What are the hero’s fears? - What challenges does the hero face? - How does the hero overcome the challenges? - What assistance does the hero receive to overcome these trials?The Abyss: When the hero reaches the abyss, the hero faces the greatest fear and adventure. This iswhere the hero must “slay the dragon.” Sometimes the hero is defeated by the challenge. - What is the greatest challenge that the hero faces? - How does the hero face the challenge? - What does the challenge mean for the hero?The Transformation: After the abyss is conquered, the hero has overcome fears and transformation iscomplete. As this happens, part of the hero dies and a new part is born. For example, fear dies and courageis born, or ignorance dies and enlightenment is born. - What qualities does the hero develop as a result of the experience? - What does the hero leave behind?The Revelation: As transformation happens, the way the hero’s thinking suddenly changes . This changemakes the hero a different person. - How has the hero changed as a result of the experience? - How is the hero a different person?The Atonement: After the hero has been transformed, the hero achieves atonement, accepts a new self,and is fully reborn. - How does the person accept the new powers? - What has the person learned as a result of the journey?
  29. 29. THE RETURN (to the known world)The Return: (with a gift): Once transformation and atonement have been achieved, the hero mustreturn to everyday life. When the hero returns, the hero discovers the gift which is given based on thehero’s new level of skill and awareness. For example, the hero may become richer, stronger, a leader,or enlightened. After this gift is bestowed, the hero can contribute to society. This may mean saving orrenewing a country or creating a city, for example. Sometimes, the hero’s gift is not recognized, and thehero may be ostracized or even killed. At other times, the hero may choose to leave the community. - What is the hero’s gift? - What does the hero do with the gift upon return? - Does the hero share the experience and wisdom gained with others? - How do others receive the hero upon the hero’s return? - Does the hero come back to everyday life? - Does anything get in the way of a return to a normal life?
  30. 30. Example: Creating a Myth Planning GuideDirections: You will be writing a myth about a modern-day hero in the style of a Greek myth. Use thefollowing as a guide to start planning your myth.General questions about the contemporary hero’s life and achievement(s):Question Contemporary My Myth (Based on Greek Mythology)Hero Rosa Parks Gaia—mother of Titans, mother of allAge 42Hero’s Qualities Stood up for what she believed Earth mother. Manifested in enclosed in—equality. She fought against spaces—the house, the courtyard, the segregation in the south. She womb, the cave. Sacred animals—snake, was brave. lunar bull, pig, bees. In her hand, poppy transforms to pomegranate. Symbol of unity of life and nature.Family Raymond—husband Uranus (the sky)—husbandLocation Montgomery, Alabama—on a On a chariot in ancient Greece busCharacters Bus driver Hermes, messenger of Zeus—wore winged cap and winged shoes, robber, plunger, cattle driver, the patron of travelers Policemen Ares—god of war MLK Atlas—led the struggle between the Titans and Olympians; supported the sky on his shoulders Civil rights activists Titans (over-reachers)Challenge She has to decide if she should The Titans are treated as inferiors to the continue to live her life abiding by Olympians, even though they ruled before the laws of segregation or stand the coming of the Olympians. What should up for what she believes in. they do about their inferior status?Obstacles She has no rights and, as an The Olympians were very powerful rulers African-American, is seen as an led by Zeus. They had lots of powers. inferior person.Overcoming She decides to stand up for what Gaia decides to take a stand against theChallenges she believes in and take the risk Olympians. On the chariot, she transforms of being arrested. to …Results Her arrest brought about the She gives birth to the Titans who work protests for more than a year. together to defeat the Olympians. They MLK led the civil rights are opposed to war, so they try to do this movement. nonviolently. Atlas leads the struggle. She says, “ ...and to let it be They use nonviolent means…Atlas holds known wherever we go that all of up the heavens. us should be free and equal and have all opportunities that others should have.”
  31. 31. Creating a Myth: Storyboard ExampleDirections: Use your myth planning guide to create a storyboard for your myth. The framework of your storyshould be based on the hero’s journey. Use the questions to help you. Separation The Call Gaia—Earth Mother, makes a journey to visit Uranus—the sky Goes by chariot Chariots run by Olympians (enemy) Disguises herself to board the chariot Sits at front of chariot Picture of Gaia The Threshold (with guardians, helpers, and mentor) Other Titans on chariot—Leot and Koios Holding poppy—gift for Uranus Chariot driven by Hermes, messenger of Zeus Picture of chariot Initiation and Transformation The Challenges Hermes tells Titans to give up seats Hermes transforms Titans as punishment Unable to transform Gaia Gaia resists Hermes Turns poppy to pomegranate Picture of Hermes The Abyss Gaia turns back from snake to self She refuses to get off the chariot Chariot stops and Ares gets on and takes Gaia Picture of Ares
  32. 32. The TransformationGaia meets ZeusZeus sends her to underworld for 50 days and nights as punishmentAtlas (MLK) visits herGaia gives birth to Titans (civil rights activists) from pomegranateAtlas leads Titans in struggle against Olympians—nonviolentlyOlympian: Since they have refused to ride the chariots, he must carry them all on hisshouldersPicture of Atlas and the Titans, pomegranateThe RevelationGaia’s survival—bees to make honeyShares honey with cellmates and saves themPicture of honey and bees, helping people—sweetnessThe AtonementGaia is freeNew strengthContinues struggles against OlympiansOlympus—GaiaThe Return (to the known world)The Return (with a gift)Atlas gives her a gift—golden chariotAtlas shows her all the progress the Titans have madeGolden chariot
  33. 33. The Story of Gaia and the Chariot Boycott
  34. 34. The Journey BeginsGaia, the Earth Mother, decides to make a journey to visit herhusband and son, Uranus, the sky. She rarely takes the occasionto go up to Uranus, since he usually comes to visit her. She callsfor a chariot. Knowing that the chariots are run by the Olympians,who do not favor the Titans, she decides to disguise herself. Shebecomes a snake as she boards the chariot to the sky. It’s a busyday in the heavens, so the chariot is very full. It’s a long ride, soGaia takes a seat. She knows that Titans are not supposed to sit atthe front – these seats are reserved for the Olympians. But, Gaia istired of this.
  35. 35. On the ChariotOn the chariot, Gaia notices other Titans,such as Leto and Koios. She is holding apoppy that she plans to bring as a gift toUranus. The chariot is being driven byHermes, messenger of Zeus.
  36. 36. The Power of the PomegranateAs more and more Olympians get on the chariot, Hermes,with his winged hat and winged shoes, demands that theTitans move aside. With his powers, he threatens totransform them. One by one, he transforms the Titans – oneinto a stone, another into a raven, and another into a mouse.However, he was having trouble transforming the oneremaining Titan – Gaia. Hermes would not dishonor Zeusand was given strict orders to uphold the laws of theOlympians.With all her might, Gaia resists transformation by Hermes.She grasps the poppy which turns to pomegranate andprovides strength, fertility, and abundance.
  37. 37. The Challenge of GaiaGaia transforms back from a snake to herself and tellsHermes that she will not get off the chariot – that she, aTitan, can ride on the chariot just as the Olympians.Hermes’s wings fall off his shoes, and the wings on hishat turn to large ears.The chariot comes to a halt and turns into several cattle.Gaia sits atop one of the cattle. She is approached by abearded god, with a spear, followed by vultures anddogs. Ares, son of Zeus and god of war, begins to battlewith her. Gaia does not believe in war and battle, so sheallows Ares to take her with him. She is led back down toEarth where she must face Zeus.
  38. 38. AtlasChallenge of Gaia The Leads the TitansGaia comes before Zeus who tells her that as punishment, she is to stay in thechambers of the underworld – for fifty days and fifty nights, so that she may geta taste of the underworld. Her first night in the underworld, she is visited byAtlas. As she and Atlas discuss the plans for overtaking the Olympians, Gaiaremembers the pomegranate that is tucked away under a scarf. She grasps ittightly and from its seeds, emerge numerous Titans. Atlas promises to leadthese Titans in the struggle against the Olympians. Since they have refused toride the chariots, he must carry them all on his shoulders to take them from theunderworld back to Earth.Under the leadership of Atlas and with the help of the Titans, the Olympiansare defeated – not through bloodshed and war, but through nonviolent acts,such as boycotting the chariots. It is said that Atlas “supported the sky on hisshoulders.”
  39. 39. Gaia’s PowersAs Gaia fulfilled the rest of the days in Hades, shenotices that she has new survival powers. She is able toproduce bees who in turn produce honey which shesurvives on. When she hears others in Hades wailing outof hunger, she spills the honey and shares it with them.She recognizes that her actions, though small they mayseem, can help many people.
  40. 40. Gaia’s StrengthAt the end of the fifty nights, Gaia is readyto be free. She feels a new found sense ofstrength and is determined to continue thestruggle against the Olympians, despitethe possible consequences.
  41. 41. The GiftWhen Gaia is freed from Hades, she is met by Atlas.Atlas presents her with a gift – her own golden chariot.Atlas and Gaia board the chariot and Atlas shows Gaiathe progress that the Titans have made – all because ofher leading the way.The Titans are now feasting with the Olympians at greatbanquets, shooting archery bows together, and acting inthe same tragedies.
  42. 42. Graphics courtesy of• www.webclipart.com• www.100000freecliparts.com• Microsoft ClipartResearch About Rosa Parks• www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/par0bio-1