Robotics & Embedded Systems
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  • 1. EMBEDDED SYSTEMS & ROBOTICS
    Prof. Anish Goel
  • 2. Embedded Systems
    We are surrounded by Embedded Systems.
    Cell Phones
    Automatic Washing Machines.
    Traffic Signals with Timers.
    Automobile Electronics.
    Find a system that contains no electronic system.
    How can a electronic system improve the functionality/efficiency of that system.
    Custom design an embedded system for the same.
    2
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 3. EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
    Embedded system means the processor is embedded into that application.
    An embedded product uses a microprocessor or microcontroller to do one task only.
    In an embedded system, there is only one application software that is typically burned into ROM.
    Example:printer, keyboard, video game player
    3
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 4. MICROPROCESSORS
    MICRO + PROCESSOR
    Length of transistor is in micron region.
    This length becomes half every eighteen months
    Moore’s Law stated by Gordan Moore.
    More transistors per chip.
    4
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 5. Different aspects of a microprocessor/controller
    Hardware :Interface to
    the real world
    Software :order how to deal with inputs
    5
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 6. Microprocessors:
    Data Bus
    CPU
    General-Purpose Micro-processor
    Serial COM Port
    I/O Port
    RAM
    ROM
    Timer
    Address Bus
    General-Purpose Microprocessor System
    General-purpose microprocessor
    CPU for Computers
    No RAM, ROM, I/O on CPU chip itself
    Example:Intel’s x86, Motorola’s 680x0
    Many chips on mother’s board
    6
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 7. Microcontroller :
    RAM
    ROM
    CPU
    A single chip
    Serial COM Port
    I/O Port
    Timer
    Microcontroller
    A smaller computer
    On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports...
    Example:Motorola’s 6811, Intel’s 8051, Zilog’s Z8 and PIC 16X
    7
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 8. Basic Microcomputer System.
    PROCESS
    INPUT
    OUTPUT
    MEMORY
    8
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 9. Microprocessors and Computer Architecture.
    What is needed to make systems smart????
    Human Brain !!!
    We are surrounded by microprocessors.
    Where are they???
    In cell phones.
    In cars.
    Smallest electronic system you can think of.
    Largest system you can think of.
    They are there is Shoes as well.
    What???? In shoes???
    What would a piece of semi-conductor do in a shoes?
    9
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 10. Why Microprocessors?
    They will act as brain of the system.
    They add intelligence to the system.
    They can be programmed to perform a task.
    Once programmed, they make the system work automatically.
    Computer Architecture!
    Specialized branch that deals with the Microprocessor Architecture.
    For instance:
    What is the memory requirement of the system.
    How many input and output devices are to be connected to the system.
    10
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 11. Block Diagram of a Computer
    11
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 12. Layers of a Computer System
    High Level Sum := Sum + 1
    Assembly MOV BX,SUM INC (BX)
    Machine 1101010100001100001000110111010111110
    Register Transfer Fetch Instruction, Increment PC, Load ALU with SUM ...
    Gate
    Circuit
    12
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 13. CPU PLATFORM
    ARM
    Power PC
    x86
    Intel 8051
    Atmel AVR
    MSP-430
    MC68HC12
    13
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 14. PERIPHERALS
    Serial Communication Interfaces (SCI): RS-232, RS-422, RS-485 etc
    Synchronous Serial Communication Interface: I2C, JTAG, SPI, SSC and ESSI
    Universal Serial Bus (USB)
    Networks: Ethernet, Controller Area Network, LonWorks, etc
    Timers: PLL(s), Capture/Compare and Time Processing Units
    Discrete IO: General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO)
    Analog to Digital/Digital to Analog Converter (ADC/DAC)
    14
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 15. MICROCONTROLLER over MICROPROCESSOR
    Single chip computer
    Integrated memory
    Integrated peripherals
    Minimum circuit
    Cost reduction
    15
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 16. FEATURES OF A MICROCONTROLLER
    Central Processing Unit - ranging from small and simple 8-bit processors to sophisticated 32- or 64-bit processors
    Input/Output Interface such as serial ports
    Peripherals such as timers and watchdog circuits
    RAM for data storage
    ROM, EEPROM or Flash Memory program storage
    Clock Generator - often an oscillator for a quartz timing crystal, resonator or RC circuit
    16
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 17. APPLICATIONS
    Calculators
    Washing Machine
    Microwave Ovens
    Cell phones
    Industrial Automation & Robotics
    Engines (Automobiles)
    “Footwear's”
    Cyborg
    17
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 18. 32-bit Electronic Fuel Injection Systems (EFI)
    Electronic engine control for minimizing exhaust emissions and maximizing fuel economy
    Instrumentation for measuring vehicle performance parameters and for diagnosis of on-board system malfunctions
    Driveline control
    Vehicle motion control
    Safety and convenience
    Entertainment/communication/navigation
    18
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 19. Control Outputs to Engine
    19
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 20. INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION & ROBOTICS
    Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility (ASIMO)
    Most developed humanoid in the world.
    20
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 21. AHS:( Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway Systems)
    Most advanced systems in the ITS field
    Reduces traffic accidents
    Enhances safety
    Improves transportation efficiency
    Reduces the operational work
    of drivers
    21
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 22. ELECTRONIC SHOES by ADDIDAS
    Adapts to the environment
    Senses the cushioning level on every step & Understands whether the cushioning provided is too soft or too firm
    Adapts itself to provide the right level of cushioning
    Sensor, located just below the runner’s heel
    Takes 1,000 readings a second
    Accurate to a tenth of a millimeter
    Microprocessor capable of
    making five million calculations
    per second
    Adapts with a motor-driven cable
    system that spins at 6,000 rpm
    22
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 23. What happens when a man is merged with a computer?
    First human Cyborg.
    Half man, half machine.
    Microprocessor chip inside his arm.
    Plans to integrate his brain with a Chip
    Prof. Kevin Warwick
    23
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 24. ROBOTICS IS INTEGRATION OF:
    ELECTRONICS + MECHANICS + SOFTWARE = ROBOTICS
    24
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 25. Nanorobots (Nanites)
    Based on nanotechnology.
    Robots having dimensions in the range of Nanometer.
    Mission to MARS in 2020 by NASA.
    25
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 26. Sony’s- AIBO
    Robo-Dogs
    Emulates all the behavior of a Dog.
    Also used as a pet which takes care of house.
    Can control home devices.
    26
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 27. EVOLUTION OR IS IT ?
    27
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 28. Are the three Laws Really Safe ?
    28
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 29. TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONS
    29
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 30. PROJECTS DESIGNED & IMPLEMENTED USING MICROCONTROLLER 8051
    Digital Data Acquisition System.
    Micromouse: An Autonomous Robot.
    Application Specific Industrial Robot.
    Industrial Automation
    Material handling system.
    30
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 31. Digital Data Acquisition System.
    Temperature Monitoring, Recording & Control using 8051.
    Temperature Sensor:DS1621 Digital thermometer & Thermostat.
    Display Device: 16x2 LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)
    Memory: External RAM (32KBytes).
    Control using Electromechanical Relay.
    31
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 32. MICROMOUSE
    Autonomous, maze solving robot.
    Touch Sensors used as input.
    D.C motors used as actuators.
    Brain: Microcontroller 8051.
    Chassis completely made out of scrap.
    32
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 33. Application Specific Industrial Robot
    Designed for Specific Industrial Purpose.
    Mechanism on top provides X-Y axis movement.
    Vehicle provides movement in the plane.
    Automatic pick and place mechanism.
    33
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel
  • 34. Thank you !!! But wait…
    This presentation is open source….
    Log on to my website:
    www.discovermechatronics.blogspot.com
    You can view/download this presentation.
    You can brows my projects on this website.
    34
    Embedded Systems & Robotics Anish Goel