Overview Of Electronics Engg Field

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Overview Of Electronics Engg Field

  1. 1. An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics<br />Prof. Anish Goel<br />
  2. 2. Electronics !!!<br />Specialized branch that deals with Electrons.<br />Low voltage operation.<br />Mostly deals with semi-conductor.<br />Derivative of Electrical branch.<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Various Domains<br />Electronic Devices.<br />Electronic Circuits.<br />Electronic Systems.<br />3<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  4. 4. Various Fields<br />Embedded Systems.<br />Semiconductor Devices and Microelectronics.<br />Microprocessors and Computer Architecture.<br />Power Electronics and Control Systems.<br />Digital Signal Processing and communication.<br />Computer Networks.<br />4<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  5. 5. Embedded Systems<br />We are surrounded by Embedded Systems.<br />Cell Phones<br />Automatic Washing Machines.<br />Traffic Signals with Timers.<br />Automobile Electronics.<br />Find a system that contains no electronic system.<br />How can a electronic system improve the functionality/efficiency of that system.<br />Custom design an embedded system for the same.<br />5<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  6. 6. EMBEDDED SYSTEMS<br />6<br /><ul><li>Embedded system means the processor is embedded into that application.
  7. 7. An embedded product uses a microprocessor or microcontroller to do one task only.
  8. 8. In an embedded system, there is only one application software that is typically burned into memory.
  9. 9. Example:printer, keyboard, video game player</li></ul>An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  10. 10. Semiconductor Devices and Microelectronics.<br />7<br />Earlier:<br />Vacuum tube diodes.<br />Transistors.<br />Now:<br />Semiconductor diodes.<br />Semiconductor Transistors.<br />Build circuits to:<br />Amplify electronic signals.<br />Filter signals according to frequency.<br />Typical example :<br />Audio system.<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  11. 11. Digital Electronics.<br />8<br />Transistor as switch. <br />Develop switching logic using multiple transistors.<br />Electronic Data is the treated as Digital having only 2 voltage levels : 0 V and 5 V.<br />A typical electronic data would be something like this:<br /> 10101110101000010101010001010101010…….<br />This is called binary digital as it has only two voltages:<br /> 0 V represented by digit 0 and 5V represented by digit 1.<br />These 1’s and 0’s turn ON and OFF the transistors.<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  12. 12. Example of Digital world around us…..<br />Computers.<br />Electronic Systems (Digital)<br />Cell Phones.<br />Computer Networks.<br />Communication Channels.<br />Hard Disks’<br />CD-ROM’s.<br />Pen Drives and Flash Memories.<br />9<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  13. 13. Micro-Electronics…<br />Transistors are small.<br />Take cross section of human hair… (Diameter is 0.1 mm)<br />How many transistors can you implement/fabricate in that area???? (Any Clue)<br />Intel P-4 Consists of 42 Million Transistors in and area of 217 mm². (Approx. 1.5 cm x 1.5cm)<br />What do you do with so many transistors:<br />Implement memory to store data.<br />Build logic to solve problems.<br />Problems ?????<br />10<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  14. 14. VLSI….<br />Very Large Scale Integration….<br />Integration of what ?<br />Transistors.<br />11<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  15. 15. Design Flow….<br />12<br />How to build an electronic system?? Preferably digital.<br />Transistors  logic gates  Cells  Blocks  Integrated circuits  Circuit Board.<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  16. 16. Microprocessors and Computer Architecture.<br />What is needed to make systems smart????<br />Human Brain !!!<br />We are surrounded by microprocessors.<br />Where are they???<br />In cell phones.<br />In cars.<br />Smallest electronic system you can think of.<br />Largest system you can think of.<br />They are there is Shoes as well.<br />What???? In shoes???<br />What would a piece of semi-conductor do in a shoes?<br />13<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  17. 17. Why Microprocessors?<br />They will act as brain of the system.<br />They add intelligence to the system.<br />They can be programmed to perform a task.<br />Once programmed, they make the system work automatically.<br />Computer Architecture!<br />Specialized branch that deals with the Microprocessor Architecture.<br />For instance:<br />What is the memory requirement of the system.<br />How many input and output devices are to be connected to the system.<br />14<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  18. 18. Block Diagram of a Computer<br />15<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  19. 19. Digital Signal Processing and Communication.<br />16<br />Most of the signals in real world are analog.<br />(In fact all the signals are analog)<br />Temperature.<br />Pressure.<br />Human Voice.<br />Electricity.<br />But we are into digital world. <br />As microprocessors are everywhere.<br />Microprocessors are digital.<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  20. 20. Bridge.<br />17<br />If that’s the case then there had to be a bridge between the real world and digital world.<br />Real world signals need to processed and fed to microprocessor for processing.<br />Analog to digital conversion.<br />Once processed, the digital output of the microprocessor needs to be converted back to analog (Real world)<br />Digital to analog conversion.<br />Signal processing is the field that deals <br /> with how to make this bridge between<br /> the real and digital world without <br /> loosing the data.<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  21. 21. Communication.<br />18<br />Most of the communication is digital.<br />Like?<br />Cell phone communication.<br />Messaging service.<br />Internet.<br />Web browsing.<br />Voice chat (VOIP)<br />Video conferencing.<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  22. 22. Computer Networks.<br />19<br />If you have many computers why<br /> not hook them together?<br />What’s the use of that?<br />Data transfer between them.<br />Bluetooth.<br />LAN.<br />Wireless sensor networks.<br />Improve efficiency. <br />Single task performed by more then<br /> one computer.<br />Parallel processing.<br />Cluster computing<br />Grid Computing.<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  23. 23. WWW.<br />20<br />Internet is the backbone of today&apos;s communication.<br />If I have to go to office and all I have to do is work there on computer, then why not do it from my home. I do have a personal computer.<br />Log ON to the office server through internet and start working. (Hurrary!!!)<br />Wireless networks.<br />Optical communication.<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  24. 24. Power Electronics and Control Systems.<br />Areas that require computer control but work on high voltages.<br />Aircraft control.<br />Industrial Drives.<br />Industrial Robots.<br />Automatic control of huge systems like:<br />Space shuttle.<br />Airbus A380.<br />Or small systems like:<br />Nano-positioner.<br />Room temperature control.<br />21<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  25. 25. Control System theory…<br />Mathematical modeling of Systems like huge mechanical systems.<br />Work out all the Applied Mathsyou’r studying:<br />Transforms like Z-Transform, Fourier, Laplace….<br />On signals and then decide the output.<br />Microprocessor is always there to perform complex mathematical calculations.<br />Simplest control system:<br />22<br />Thermometer Input (Temp.)<br />Switch ON/OFF. AC<br />Comparator<br />Room Temp ?<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />
  26. 26. Thank you !!! But wait…<br />23<br />This presentation is open source….<br />Log on to my website:<br />www.discovermechatronics.blogspot.com<br />You can view/download this presentation.<br />You can brows my projects on this website.<br />An Overview of Various Fields of Electronics. Anish Goel<br />

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