Basics Of Comuter Networking
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Basics Of Comuter Networking

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Basics of Computer Communication and Network with Emphasis on the history of communication. It also mentions the current scenario of computer networks.

Basics of Computer Communication and Network with Emphasis on the history of communication. It also mentions the current scenario of computer networks.

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Basics Of Comuter Networking Basics Of Comuter Networking Presentation Transcript

  • Basics of Computer Networking
    Prof. Anish Goel
  • Contents
    Introduction
    History of Communication
    Computer Networks
    Current Scenario
    Complexity
    Layered Architecture
    Computer Networks
  • Introduction
    Where do you see computers ?
    What is the purpose of connecting them in network ?
    Transmission from Analog to Digital Communication.
    Impact of computers on the communication methods.
    Most common form of communication ???
    Magic number of 64Kbps !!!!
    Computer Networks
  • Telephone Networks and Circuit Switching
    Signal for “ae” as in cat
    Microphone
    Loudspeaker
    analog
    electrical
    signal
    sound
    sound
    Alexander Graham Bell (1875) working on harmonic telegraph to multiplex telegraph signals
    Discovered voice signals can be transmitted directly
    Microphone converts voice pressure variation (sound) into analogous electrical signal
    Loudspeaker converts electrical signal back into sound
    Telephone patent granted in 1876
    Bell Telephone Company founded in 1877
    Computer Networks
  • The N2 Problem
    1
    2
    N
    . . .
    3
    4
    For N users to be fully connected directly
    Requires N(N – 1)/2 connections
    Requires too much space for cables
    Inefficient & costly since connections not always on
    N = 1000
    N(N – 1)/2 = 499500
    Computer Networks
  • Circuit Switching
    Patch cord panel switch invented in 1877
    Operators connect users on demand
    Establish circuit to allow electrical current to flow from inlet to outlet
    Only N connections required to a central office
    Computer Networks
  • Digitization of Telephone Network
    Pulse Code Modulation digital voice signal
    Voice gives 8 bits/sample x 8000 samples/sec = 64x103 bps
    Time Division Multiplexing for digital voice
    T-1 multiplexing (1961): 24 voice signals = 1.544x106 bps
    Digital Switching (1980s)
    Switch TDM signals without conversion to analog form
    Digital Cellular Telephony (1990s)
    Optical Digital Transmission (1990s)
    One OC-192 optical signal = 10x109 bps
    One optical fiber carries 160 OC-192 signals = 1.6x1012 bps!
    All digital transmission, switching, and control
    Computer Networks
  • Computer Connection Control
    Computer
    Switch connects
    Inlets to Outlets
    . . .
    . . .
    Voice
    A computer controls connection in telephone switch
    Computers exchange signaling messages to:
    Coordinate set up of telephone connections
    To implement new services such as caller ID, voice mail, . . .
    To enable mobility and roaming in cellular networks
    “Intelligence” inside the network
    A separate signaling network is required
    Computer Networks
  • Computer Network Evolution Overview
    1950s: Telegraph technology adapted to computers
    1960s: Dumb terminals access shared host computer
    1970s: Computers connect directly to each other
    ARPANET packet switching network
    TCP/IP internet protocols
    Ethernet local area network
    1980s & 1990s: New applications and Internet growth
    Commercialization of Internet
    E-mail, file transfer, web, P2P, . . .
    Internet traffic surpasses voice traffic
    Computer Networks
  • What is a protocol?
    Communications between computers requires very specific unambiguous rules
    A protocol is a set of rules that governs how two or more communicating parties should interact
    Internet Protocol (IP)
    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
    HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
    Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
    Computer Networks
  • Computer-to-Computer Networks
    As cost of computing dropped, terminal-oriented networks viewed as too inflexible and costly
    Need to develop flexible computer networks
    Interconnect computers as required
    Support many applications
    Application Examples
    File transfer between arbitrary computers
    Execution of a program on another computer
    Multiprocess operation over multiple computers
    Computer Networks
  • Packet Switching
    Message Switching
    Transfer arbitrary message size
    But in store-and-forward operation, long messages induce high delay on interactive traffic that consists of short messages
    Packet switching introduced
    Network transfers packets using store-and-forward
    Packets have maximum length
    Break long messages into multiple packets
    Low delays for interactive traffic
    ARPANET testbed led to many innovations
    Computer Networks
  • Current Scenario
    High-speed data transmission.
    More bandwidth.
    Multimedia traffic increasing.
    Wi-Fi and Wi-Max.
    ATM Networks.
    Optical Bandwidth Exploration.
    Speed limitation on electronic switching.
    Computer Networks