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Basic circuit or cad

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    Basic circuit or cad Basic circuit or cad Presentation Transcript

    • Basic Circuit Simulation using OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Capacitors in Series Series Capacitors add like Parallel Resistors: 1/CT = 1/C1 + 1/Cn CT = .909uF 2 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Capacitors in Parallel Parallel Capacitors add like Series Resistors: CT = C1 + Cn CT = 11uF 3 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Inductors in Series• Series Inductors add like Series Resistors:• LT = L1 + Ln• LT = 11uH4 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Inductors in Parallel Parallel Inductors add like Parallel Resistors: 1/LT = 1/L1 + 1/Ln LT = .909uH 5 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Capacitor Review Starts as short circuit, ends as open circuit iC = C*dVC/dt Open circuit at low frequencies Short circuit at high frequencies 6 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Inductor Review Starts as open circuit, ends as short circuit VL = L*dI/dt Short circuit at low frequencies Open circuit at high frequencies 7 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Filters Use frequency response characteristics of C and L to filter frequency components out of a time domain signal. Low Pass High Pass Band Pass Band Stop 8 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Low Pass Filters RC Low Pass: fcut off frequency = 1/(2πRC) • Component selection • RC vs. RL filters RL Low Pass: fc = R/(2πL)9 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • AC Analysis (freq) Logarithmic plot (count by decades) fc defined as –3dB of input, “Half power point” Copy paste data points to excel! 10 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Decibels Measure of gain. Instead of saying gain is 100,000x, some engineers prefer to say it as 100dB. Power gain: dB = 10 log(Po/Pi) Voltage gain: dB = 20 log(Vo/Vi) Always a relationship 11 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Decibels (cont’d) Useful values:  0dB = 1x  3dB = 2x  6dB = 4x  10dB = 10x  20dB = 100x  30dB = 1000x  3dBm is 3dB above 1mW 12 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Cursor Control Cursor 1:  left click  left/right arrows Cursor 2:  right click  Shift left/right arrows 13 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Cursor, Mark Label14 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • .707? Because we are comparing gains in voltage, not power, we must use 20log(Vo/Vi). 10^(-3dB/20) = .707V So,Vo = .707Vi at the cut off frequency 15 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Bode Plot (dB, logarithmic)16 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Common Problems Q: Simulation not making sense A: Make sure you how things are connected.17 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • • RC High Pass: • RL High Pass:• fc = 1/(2πRC) • fL = R/(2πL)18 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Band Pass HP LP BW = (fc + 3dB) – (fc – 3dB) BW = 200.171kHz – 494.694Hz = 199.676kHz19 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Response20 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Band Stop HP LP BW = 16.216kHz –6.0833kHz = 10.133kHz21 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Response22 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Transformer Easy to “Step down” or “Step up” an AC voltage (This is why AC is used for home power delivery instead of DC.) VP/VS = NP/NS => VS = VPNS/NP Excellent DC filter because VS = NS*dΦ/dt 23 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • In PSPICE… Coupling = 1 Lx_Value = Nx2  should be between 1mH and 1H 24 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Diode Allow current to flow only in 1 direction Flow from left (annode+) to right (cathode-) is forward biased. Diode causes a voltage drop due to its activation voltage.  Silicon - .7V  Germanium - .3V Cathode connected to a battery is reversed biased. (blocked) Perform DC Sweep and Transient Response (use D1N4002) 25 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Activation Voltage26 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Transient ResponseHalf Wave Rectifier27 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Half Wave Rectifier28 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Full Wave Rectification29 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Bridge Rectifier30 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • In PSPICE…31 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Full Wave Rectifier32 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Smoothing Use capacitor to smooth the ripples of the rectified wave form. (Negative voltage)33 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel
    • Regulators Not in student addition Outputs a clean regulated voltage LM317 and 337 are +/- 2-18V variable regulators LM7805 is 5V regulator Input must be relatively steady or else regulator will fail. 34 OrCAD Prof. Anish Goel