3. First War Of Independence
The Indian sepoys were dissatisfied with treatment
meted out with them. The Indian rulers – Bahadur Shah
Zafar, Tatya Tope, Rani Laxmi Bai and Nana Saheb , had
personal scores to settle with the British. The lord
Dalhousie introduced the policy of annexations – ‘The
Doctrine of Lapse’. This created fear and resentment
among Indian rulers.
The zamindari system exploited the peasants who
were forced to grow only those crops that the British
industries required. They were tortured or jailed on
failure to pay the revenue on time. The common
people faced unemployment and poverty.
Social & religious Causes
The Social Reforms by the British were considered an
interference in the customs and traditions of the
Hindus. The Hindu law of property was changed into
enable a Christian convert to receive his share of
ancestral property. Indians were not allowed to travel
in first class train compartments.
The Sepoys had helped the British to establish their
empire in India but instead of receiving awards or
promotions they were humiliated by the British. There was
a discrimination between the Indian and British soldier. The
highest pay given to an Indian Sepoy as Subedar was less
than the minimum pay of European Recruit. The Act of
1856, made it compulsory for new recruit to serve
Kunwar Singh the 80 year old land lord of Jagdishpur
was the most outstanding military leader of the revolt in
the Western Bihar.
6. First War Of Independence
The rebellion was a most major event in the history of modern India. The
Parliament of the United Kingdom withdrew the right of the British
East India Company to rule India in November 1858. The United
Kingdom started ruling India directly through its representative called
the Viceroy of India. It made India a part of the British Empire. It
promised the "the Princes, Chiefs, and Peoples of India," equal
treatment under the British law. In 1877, Queen Victoria took the title
of Empress of India.
The British sent Bahadur Shah II, the last Mughal Emperor, out of
India, and kept him in Yangon (then called Rangoon), Burma where he
died in 1862. The Mughal dynasty, which had ruled India for about four
hundred years, ended with his death.
The British also took many steps to employ members of Indian higher
castes and rulers into the government. They stopped taking the lands of
the remaining princes and rulers of India. They stopped interference in
religious matters. They started employing Indians in the civil services
but at lower levels. They increased the number of British soldiers, and
allowed only British soldiers to handle artillery.
7. Indian Independence
Nationalist response to war
In the aftermath of World War I, high casualty
rates, soaring inflation compounded by heavy taxation, a
widespread influenza epidemic and the disruption of
trade during the war escalated human suffering in India.
The pre-war nationalist movement revived as moderate
and extremist groups within the Congress submerged
their differences in order to stand as a unified front. They
argued their enormous services to the British Empire
during the war demanded a reward, and demonstrated
the Indian capacity for self-rule. In 1916, the Congress
succeeded in forging the Lucknow Pact, a temporary
alliance with the Muslim League over the issues of
devolution of political power and the future of Islam in
8. British reforms
The British themselves adopted a "carrot and stick" approach in
recognition of India's support during the war and in response to renewed
nationalist demands. In August 1917, Edwin Montagu, the secretary of
state for India, made the historic announcement in Parliament that the
British policy for India was "increasing association of Indians in every
branch of the administration and the gradual development of selfgoverning institutions with a view to the progressive realization of
responsible government in India as an integral part of the British Empire."
The means of achieving the proposed measure were later enshrined in
the Government of India Act 1919, which introduced the principle of a
dual mode of administration, or diarchy, in which both elected Indian
legislators and appointed British officials shared power. The act also
expanded the central and provincial legislatures and widened the
franchise considerably. Diarchy set in motion certain real changes at the
provincial level: a number of non-controversial or "transferred"
portfolios, such as agriculture, local government, health, education, and
public works, were handed over to Indians, while more sensitive matters
such as finance, taxation, and maintaining law and order were retained by
the provincial British administrators.
9. Gandhi arrives to India
Gandhi returned to India, on 9 January 1915 and initially entered the political fray not with calls for a
nation-state, but in support of the unified commerce-oriented territory that the Congress Party had been
asking for. Gandhi believed that the industrial development and educational development that the
Europeans had brought with them were required to alleviate many of India's problems. Gopal Krishna
Gokhale, a veteran Congressman and Indian leader, became Gandhi's mentor. Gandhi's ideas and
strategies of non-violent civil disobedience initially appeared impractical to some Indians and
Congressmen. In Gandhi's own words, "civil disobedience is civil breach of unmoral statutory
enactments." It had to be carried out non-violently by withdrawing cooperation with the corrupt state.
Gandhi's ability to inspire millions of common people became clear when he used satyagraha during the
Anti-Rowlatt Act protests in Punjab. Gandhi had great respect for Lokmanya Tilak. His programmes were
all inspired by Tilak's "Chatusutri" programme. Gandhi's vision would soon bring millions of regular
Indians into the movement, transforming it from an elitist struggle to a national one. The nationalist cause
was expanded to include the interests and industries that formed the economy of common Indians. For
example, in Champaran, Bihar, Gandhi championed the plight of desperately poor sharecroppers and
landless farmers who were being forced to pay oppressive taxes and grow cash crops at the expense of
the subsistence crops which formed their food supply. The profits from the crops they grew were
insufficient to provide for their sustenance. The positive impact of reform was seriously undermined in
1919 by the Rowlatt Act, named after the recommendations made the previous year to the Imperial
Legislative Council by the Rowlatt Commission. The Rowlatt Act vested the Viceroy's government with
extraordinary powers to quell sedition by silencing the press, detaining the political activists without
trial, and arresting any individuals suspected of sedition or treason without a warrant. In protest, a
nationwide cessation of work (hartal) was called, marking the beginning of widespread, although not
nationwide, popular discontent.
10. The Non Co-operation
The Non-Cooperation Movement was a significant phase of the Indian
struggle for freedom from British rule. It was led by Mahatma Gandhi and
was supported by the Indian National Congress.After Jallianwala Bagh
incident Gandhi started Non Cooperation movement. It aimed to resist
British occupation in India through non-violent means. Protestors would
refuse to buy British goods, adopt the use of local handicrafts, picket
liquor shops, and try to uphold the Indian values of honor and integrity.
The ideals of Ahimsa or non-violence, and Gandhi's ability to rally
hundreds of thousands of common citizens towards the cause of Indian
independence, were first seen on a large scale in this movement through
the summer 1920, they feared that the movement might lead to popular
violence. Among the significant causes of this movement were colonial
oppression, exemplified by the Rowlatt Act and Jallianwala Bagh
massacre, economic hardships to the common man due to a large chunk
of Indian wealth being exported to Britain, ruin of Indian artisans due to
British factory-made goods replacing handmade goods, and popular
resentment with the British over Indian soldiers dying in World War I
while fighting as part of the British Army, in battles that otherwise had
nothing to do with India
The calls of early political leaders like Mohammad Ali Jinnah (who later became
communal and hardened his stand), Annie Besant and Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(Congress Extremists) for home rule were accompanied only by petitions and
major public meetings. They never resulted in disorder or obstruction of
government services. Partly due to that, the British did not take them very
seriously. The non-cooperation movement aimed to ensure that the colonial
economic and power structure would be seriously challenged, and British
authorities would be forced to take notice of the people's demands.Here we
should know that many revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh, Chandra Shekhar Azad
were supporters of this very movement but were really dissatisfied by the
dismissing of movement by Gandhi.
Mahatma Gandhi had shown a similar movement in South Africa and in 1917-18 in
Champaran, Bihar and Kheda, Gujarat that the only way to earn the respect and
attention of British officials was to actively resist government activities through
Now in Champaran and Kheda in 1918 he led impoverished farmers, mired in social
evils like unhygienic conditions, domestic violence, discrimination, oppression of
women and untouchability. On top of their miseries, these people were forced
to grow cash crops like indigo, tobacco and cotton instead of food, and for this
they were virtually not compensated. In addition, they had to pay taxes despite
12. The Governments of the affected regions signed agreements
suspending taxation in face of the famine, allowing the farmers to
grow their own crops, releasing all political prisoners and returning
all property and lands seized. It was the biggest victory against the
British Empire since the American Revolution.
India were assisted by a new generation of Indian revolutionaries like
Rajendra Prasad and Jawaharlal Nehru. In Kheda, the entire revolt
had been led by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, who was to become
Gandhi's right hand man.
A meeting of unarmed civilians was being held at Jallianwala Bagh near
the Golden temple in Amritsar. The people were fired upon by
soldiers under the command of Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer. He
also ordered the only exit to be blocked. The massacre resulted in
the deaths of some 370 protestors while over 1000 were injured in
the shooting. The outcry in Punjab led to thousands of
unrests, protests and more deaths at the hands of the police. The
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre became the most infamous event of
British rule in India.
13. Salt Satyagraha
On 12 March 1930, Gandhi and 78 satyagrahis many of them were
scheduled castes, set out on foot for the coastal village of
Dandi, Gujarat, over 390 kilometres (240 mi) from their starting point at
Sabarmati Ashram. Salt March was also called the White Flowing river
because all the people were joining the procession wearing white khadi.
According to The Statesman, the official government newspaper which
usually played down the size of crowds at Gandhi's functions, 100,000
people crowded the road that separated Sabarmati from Ahmadabad. The
first day's march of 21 kilometres (13 mi) ended in the village of
Aslali, where Gandhi spoke to a crowd of about 4,000. At Aslali, and the
other villages that the march passed through, volunteers collected
donations, registered new satyagrahis, and received resignations from
village officials who chose to end co-operation with British rule.
As they entered each village, crowds greeted the marchers, beating drums
and cymbals. Gandhi gave speeches attacking the salt tax as inhuman, and
the salt satyagraha as a "poor man's battle." Each night they slept in the
open. The only thing that was asked of the villagers was food and water to
wash with. Gandhi felt that this would bring the poor into the battle for
independence, necessary for eventual victory.
14. Thousands of satyagrahis and leaders like Sarojini Naidu
joined him. Every day, more and more people joined
the march, until the procession of marchers became at
least two miles long.To keep up their spirits, the
marchers used to sing the Hindu bhajan Raghupati
Raghava Raja Ram while walking. At Surat, they were
greeted by 30,000 people. When they reached the
railhead at Dandi, more than 50,000 were gathered.
Gandhi gave interviews and wrote articles along the
way. Foreign journalists made him a household name
in Europe and America. The New York Times wrote
almost daily about the Salt March, including two front
page articles on 6 and 7 April.Near the end of the
march, Gandhi declared, "I want world sympathy in this
battle of Right against Might.
15. Quit India
The Quit India Act (Hindi:
Bhārat Chhodo Āndolan), or
the August Movement (August Kranti) was a civil disobedience movement
launched in India in August 1942 in response to Mohandas Gandhi's call
for 'Satyagraha' . The All-India Congress Committee proclaimed a mass
protest demanding what Gandhi called "an orderly British withdrawal"
from India. The call for determined, but passive resistance appears in his
call to Do or Die, issued on 8 August at the Gowalia Tank Maidan in
Mumbai on year 1942.
The British were prepared to act. Almost the entire INC leadership, and
not just at the national level, was imprisoned without trial within hours
after Gandhi's speech—at least 60,000 people. Most spent the rest of the
war in prison and out of contact with the masses. The British had the
support of the Viceroy's Council (which had a majority of Indians), of the
Muslims, the Communist Party, the princely states, the Imperial and state
police, the Indian Army, and the Indian Civil Service. Many Indian
businessmen were profiting from heavy wartime spending and did not
support Quit India. Many students paid more attention to Subhas Chandra
Bose, who was in exile and supporting the Axis. The only outside support
came from the Americans, as President Franklin D. Roosevelt pressured
Prime Minister Winston Churchill to give in to Indian demands. The Quit
India campaign was effectively crushed.
independence, saying it could happen only after the
Procession view at Bangalore
Sporadic small-scale violence took place around the
country but the British arrested tens of thousands of
leaders, keeping them imprisoned until 1945, and
suppressed civil rights, freedom of speech and freedom
of the press. In terms of immediate objectives Quit
suppression, weak coordination and the lack of a clearcut programme of action. However, the British
government realized that India was ungovernable in
the long run, and the question for postwar became
how to exit gracefully and peacefully .
17. Our Opinion
Incredible India! Celebrating 66 years of Independence. We
see a future that is not so bright like what our leaders
dreamed in 1947. The curse continues. Incredible India!
Incredible India! What should be done to live up to its
name? Its time for the Gen-Next to take up the fight for a
new nation. Incredible India!
Incredible India! When I see small Asian countries with no
major history under their names setting high standards in
living but my country with more than 5000 years of history
doesn't show a basic standard. Incredible India!
Now its time for the next generation to lead the nation. Its
time for the next generation to wage war against the most
dangerous trend that exist in our daily life, CORRUPTION.
18. India's 1st Independence that lasted for 200
years came to the climax after the formation
of Quit India Movement.
Now the 2nd freedom struggle is surely heading
towards the climax as we are going to see the
formation of Young India Movement.
Its time for Young India Movement.
May God bless India and the rest of the world.
19. Made By:-Shweta Singh, Anisha