INTRODUCING WAYS TO EFFECTIVELY SELECT THE RIGHT MATERIAL NOR ANISAZILA ABDUL RAHIM Ministry Of Works , Kingdom Of Bahrain 24th January 2010
CONTENTS OVERVIEW MATERIALS FAILURE : Corrosive Effects Of Effluent WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT MATERIALS COMMONLY USED IN BAHRAIN SELECTING THE MATERIALS : Performance Spec. Vs Prescriptive Spec. SELECTING THE MATERIALS : Life Cost Cycle Of Material PROACTIVE APPROACH : Specifications & Standards PREVENTIVE & CORRECTIVE APPROACH : Quality Assurance & Quality Control RECOMMENDATIONS & CONCLUSION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
OVERVIEW : corrosive effects of effluent CORROSION is significant at almost any surface within wastewater plant and network. EFFLUENT itself is the most aggressive corrosive liquids travel through wastewater system component. ( piping , tank, pump & other related equipment ) “ An estimated $36 Billion in corrosion damage is occur in water & wastewater handling system each year” 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
OVERVIEW : corrosive effects of effluent CORROSION targets steel piping , tanks , transfer lines and pump - compromising not only their integrity but does effect the ability & efficiency of the wastewater plant Due to the aggressive nature of wastewater , any steel element such as pipes, joints, pumps or tank surface is vulnerable to corrosion “Selecting the right material is essential” 1 23 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
REHABILITATION & MAINTAINANCE: PREVENTIVE & CORRECTIVE APPROACH REHABILITATION & MAINTAINANCE IN PROGRESS Improved PUMPING SYSTEM & FIREFIGHTING SYSTEM Enhanced monitoring with SCADA SYSTEM REDESIGN & REPLACE old Piping system with NEW MATERIALS & METHODS Effective Study & Planning for Kingdom of Bahrain in NATIONAL MASTERPLAN FOR THE SANITARY ENGINEERING SERVICES ( Under Development ) 1 2 3 4 56 7 8 9 10
MATERIALS COMMONLY USED Based on Survey: ~90% of foul sewerage is made of VCP 1 2 3 4 56 7 8 9 10
MATERIALS COMMONLY USED Based on Survey: ~84% of storm drainage is made of GRP/RTR 1 2 3 4 56 7 8 9 10
NEW MATERIALS USED & RECOMENDED GLASS-REINFORCED PLASTIC (GRP) PIPE GRP has been ACCEPTED and USED as a pipe material for over 30years &its use is well documented. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF GRPis second to none. It has the ability to work at high or low temperatures in very corrosive environments. PLASTIC is invariably used to resist the corrosive effects 1 2 3 4 56 7 8 9 10
NEW MATERIALS USED & RECOMENDED POLYMER CONCRETE PIPE (PCP) for Deep Gravity Sewer Pipe Material POLYMER CONCRETE PIPE (PCP)
RESISTANCE TO CHEMICAL ATTACK from the inside & outside
STRENGTH IN RESPECT OF THE STRESSES from external and internal loads
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
NEW MATERIALS USED & RECOMENDED The future pipes in Bahrain - an alternatives materials to extend service life & reduce the cost POLY-GLASS PIPES is a composite of POLYMER CONCRETE and GRP.A unique design subject to an international patent GRP provides the INNER & POLYMER CONCRETE PIPE provides the OUTER structural wall. Advantage of the HIGH STRENGTH PROPERTY OF POLYMER CONCRETE &THE PROVEN CORROSION RESISTANCE OF GRP. 111213 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
NEW MATERIALS USED & RECOMENDED EFFECTIVE PROTECTIVE COATING to ensure against corrosion Corrosion not only threatens water storage tanks, but it can also SHORTEN THE LIFE OF PARTS of the water treatment plant and distribution system Water and wastewater structures should be DESIGNED TO PREVENT CORROSION by making them easy to paint and repaint LONG TERM PROTECTION against attack by a wide range of chemicals 111213 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
PERFORMANCE BASED SPECIFICATION : PRO-ACTIVE APPROACH SPECIFICATION AND STANDARDS of high technology Set up of Intellectual Base SPECIFICATION AND STANDARDS MOW SPECIFICATION AND STANDARDS set out the specifications and design procedures. to ensure goods/ materials and services consistently perform in the way they are intended This SPECIFICATION AND STANDARDS make a sustained contribution to generating national wealth, IMPROVING OUR QUALITY OF LIFE, increasing employment, improving safety and health and using our national resources more efficiently. 1112 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS VERSUS PRESCRIPTIVE SPECIFICATION WHAT IS A PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION?
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION :set of instructions that OUTLINES THE FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS depending on the application.
The INSTRUCTIONS should be CLEAR, ACHIEVABLE, MEASURABLE AND ENFORCEABLE.
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS : clearly specify the
TEST METHODS AND THE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA that will be used to verify and enforce the requirements.
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION : defines the
performance CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FINAL PRODUCT and links them to construction, materials, and other items under contractor control 1112 1314 15 16 17 18 19 20
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS VERSUS PRESCRIPTIVE SPECIFICATION WHAT IS A PRESCRIPTIVE SPECIFICATION?
PRESCRIPTIVE SPECIFICATION :includes clauses for means and METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION AND COMPOSITION NOTDEFINING PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS.
Performance requirements are NOT CLEARLY INDICATED in project specifications and the PRESCRIPTIVE REQUIREMENTS MAY CONFLICT WITH THE INTENDED PERFORMANCE.
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS VERSUS PRESCRIPTIVE SPECIFICATION PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS IN SNAPSHOT. WHEN FUTURE PERFORMANCE OF A PRODUCT can be estimated using key construction tests and measurements linked to the original design via modeling and life cycle costs, the specification structure is commonly described as PERFORMANCE-RELATED or PERFORMANCE-BASED. WHEN THE CONDITION OF THE PRODUCT is measured after some predetermined time, the specification structure is commonly known as a WARRANTY. WHEN THE FINAL PRODUCT is described in terms of component materials, dimensions, tolerances, weights, and required construction methodology-equipment type, size, speed, etc.-the specifications are commonly known as METHOD or PRESCRIPTIVE SPECIFICATIONS 1112 1314151617 18 19 20
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS WARRANTIES WARRANTIESdivided into two areas: MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP (M&W) WARRANTIES and PRODUCT PERFORMANCE WARRANTIES. MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP (M&W) WARRANTIES : call for contractors TO CORRECT DEFECTS IN WORK elements within their control. The PERFORMANCE WARRANTY is a recent concept and requires the contractor TO CORRECT DEFECTS IF THE PRODUCT DOES NOT PERFORM to some desired quality level over a certain time in service. PRODUCT PERFORMANCE WARRANTIES are somewhat controversial, exponentially so as the length of the warranty period extends beyond three years. 1112 131415161718 1920
LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSES A LIFE CYCLE ANALYSES consists of evaluating a broad spectrum of ENVIRONMENTAL ATTRIBUTES of the product, manufacturing process, and manufacturer. Selecting the most relevant attributes is dependent upon the commodity or service being purchased, LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL PRIORITIES, & AVAILABILITY OF RELIABLE INFORMATION in addition to the traditional CAP (Cost, Availability, Performance) factors. A 'LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS also known as 'Life Cycle Assessment ', 'Eco-balance', and 'Cradle-to-grave Analysis') is the INVESTIGATION AND EVALUATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF A GIVEN PRODUCT OR SERVICEcaused or necessitated by its existence 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
WHAT IS LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSES ? LIFE CYCLE COST (LCC) ANALYSIS is a METHOD OF ANALYZING THE COST OF A SYSTEM OR A PRODUCT OVER ITS ENTIRE LIFESPAN.
LCC define the LIFESPAN OF A SYSTEM OR PRODUCT, and assign equations to each element. These equations represent the calculation of the cost of that particular element.
LCC provides a systematic process for EVALUATING AND QUANTIFYING THE COST IMPACTS of alternate courses of action.
support TRADE-OFF ANALYSIS between several product design configurations, or MEASURE OF SENSITIVITY of a specific product design to changes in selected performance parameters (such as reliability, maintainability, and testability). Product quality can AFFECT OPERATION AND REPAIR COSTS. Higher quality products can MINIMIZE associated scrap and rework costs. 2122 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
PERFORMANCE BASED SPECIFICATION : PRO-ACTIVE APPROACH MOW Specification and Standards - ENSURE PRODUCTS AND SYSTEMS ARE SAFE AND RELIABLE. SPECIFICATION DEVELOP based on a collection of references including literature or data collected from industry, association, survey or data obtained through research and technology development & usually UNIQUE TO LOCAL CONDITIONS such as in Kingdom of Bahrain 2122 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
N F V GRP Coupling GRP Pipe H Water Leakage P P Cracks/Breakage in Coupling EPDM Seal FIGURE 1: Pipe-Coupling Joint Failure during Operations. QUALITY ASSURANCE : PRO-ACTIVE APPROACH FACT: In Bahrain, TSE(Treated Sewage Effluent)network suffered from excessive leakages - Serious and repetitive breakdowns affecting end users CAUSES/PROBLEM AREAS:
Materials problems (inferior, not to specifications)
Workmanship (inexperienced contractor, lack of supervision by consultant)
Overlooked design considerations (traffic-induced stresses, ground saturation, construction activities in pipeline’s vicinity)
To assure the Quality of Sanitary Pipeline Projects A QA Framework to be implemented involving the resources of MED and Project Manager/team members 212223 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
QUALITY ASSURANCE FRAMEWORK MED has formulated framework which covers provision of guidelines on requirements pertaining to QUALITY AND MATERIALS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TENDER OF PROJECT CONTRACTS & ESTABLISHMENT OF A ROBUST MONITORING SYSTEM comprising of the review of contractual quality documents as well as AUDIT, INSPECTION AND TESTING. 212223 2425 26 27 28 29 30
QA FRAMEWORK MAIN ACTIVITIES: REVIEW contractor/consultant’sPQP and materials specification/ selection. AUDIT: Scheduled monthly (or 2 or 3 monthly), looks at contractor’s/consultant‘s processes and examines documents/ records. TESTING: Independent testing of samples obtained from site at MED or MED-appointed accredited lab. INSPECTION: Observation of construction processes at site based on developed checklists. 212223 242526 27 28 29 30
ACCHIEVING QUALITY ASSURANCE MATERIALS ENGINEERING DIRECTORATE providing quality control services on government contracts, and acting as a facility for investigation and research that deal with the SELECTION AND USE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALSin the Kingdom of Bahrain, roles which still continue until present. In line with MoW’s strategy and Bahrain Vision 2030 a mandate has been given to assure that quality in government projects ATTAIN A HIGH LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE and COST-EFFECTIVENESS, with the DESIRED RESULT OF ACHIEVING THE GREATEST POSSIBLE LONGEVITY OF THE END PRODUCT. 212223 242526 27 28 29 30
RECOMMENDATIONS & CONCLUSION EFFECTIVELY SELECT THE RIGHT MATERIAL Addition of comparing to “ If a tank manufacturer promises a low cost for tank and corrosion-resistant coating, make sure you review cost for the total life cycle of the tank, not just initial cost. A HIGHER QUALITY COATING MAY HAVE A HIGHER UPFRONT COST BUT OFFER LOWER LIFETIME MAINTENANCE AND RECOATING REQUIREMENTS, AS CORROSION SHORTENS THE LIFE OF A TANK.” 212223 24252627 28 29 30
Thank You ….. Let’s Save Our Planet And Preserve A Clean Environment … Towards A Sustainable Water With An Effective Wastewater Infrastructure…. 212223 24252627 282930