“The management of communication between an organization and its publics” by Grunig and Hunt. “The management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the publics on whom its success or failure depends.” Public relations is the profitable integration of an organization’s new and continuing relationships with stakeholders including customers by managing all communications contacts with the organization that create and protect the brand and reputation of the organization
Is a fundamental and defining statement about what effective public relations is. To determine what are the characteristics of excellent communications and of the companies that do excellent public relations. Incorporates a number of middle-range theories of Public relations, including theories of publics, public relations and strategic management, models of public relations, evaluation of public relations, employee communication, public relations roles, gender, diversity, power, activism, ethics and social responsibility, and global public relation.
Explained the value of public relations to organizations and social based on social responsibility of managerial decisions and the quality of relationships with stakeholder publics. Eg : For an organization to be effective, must behave in ways that solve the problems and satisfy the goals of stakeholders as well as of management. Public relations loses its unique role in strategic management if it is Sublimated to marketing or other management functions. Eg : Sublimation to another function resulted in attention only to the stakeholder category of interest to that function, such as consumers for marketing.
Symmetrical system of internal communication increased employees satisfaction with their jobs and with the organization. However, internal communication generally was not practiced unless organizations had a Participative rather than authoritarian culture and a decentralized, less stratified(organic) structure rather than a centralized, stratified (mechanical) structure. Effect of the growing number of women in public relations and evidence that women had difficulty entering managerial roles. Eg : Organizations with excellent public relations valued women as much as men for the strategic role and developed programs to empower women throughout the organization. Emphasis on gender also led to inclusion of diversity of race and ethnicity.
Modernism is that its concerns lie not simply with scientific forms of reason that privilege a foundational epistemology but also with forms of reason grounded in our linguistically mediated sense of being-in-the- world. A state of emphasis on individuality, of human beings who believe they could operate purely out of their own will without any outside influences. Modernism maintains that there is one reality or truth, called a dominating ideology. This one reality is affixed through social science research or positivism. This approach has been called rational because it values objectivity and believes it possible to avoid values in research. Modernism is associated with linearity or progression passing from one stage to the next.
Examples from public relations principles that reflect modernist thought include a focus on goals and objectives or management-by-objectives, breaking down into more and more measurable parts the process through which public relations can achieve such outcomes as behavior change, but also change in awareness, comprehension, and attitudes.
Holtzhausen provides an overview of postmodernist thought that includes five characteristics: An emphasis on individual realities rather than one; an ethically responsible society: accommodation of many diverse ideas and perspectives, including modernism; resistance to positivism; and, a philosophy of the immediate rather than seeking the ideal state of society. The first of postmodernism’s stances is the importance of the influence of history, culture, society, class, and gender on the individual. Example: People from different ethnic, social, class, and gender standpoints see very different realities. This approach extends to publics and organizations, viewed by each within specific realities rather than one reality or one dominant ideology, such as patriarchy, democracy or capitalism.
Second, postmodernist thought calls for an ethically responsible society because of our various cultural, class, and ethnic differences. “The ethically responsible society supports science and technology but also emphasizes imagination, sensitivity, emotion, humanity, and an appreciation of differences.” Third, postmodernism fears dominating ideologies or metanarravies because of their controlling natures. Example: Public relations, it is assumed in postmodern thinking, has a role in reinforcing dominating ideologies, whether consciously or unconsciously. Holtzhausen describes postmodernism as “extremely multifaceted, drawing on all theories that might be applicable to the question under scrutiny.”
Fourth, postmodernism resists positivism. Mumby describes positivism as the discourse of representation and its “correspondence theory” of truth that is most often associated with mainstream social science research. Fifth, postmodernism focuses on the immediate problem rather than on reaching for some ideal state in society. Example: Postmodernists see fragmentary and multiple worlds in constant and continuous change. L’Ltang and Pieczka argue that there is not one overall standard to be found, particularly in the practice of public relations or the interests of those on behalf of which public relations operates.
The dominant coalition is the social network of individuals having the greatest influence on the selection of an organizations goals and strategies Pfeffer & Salancik, 1978; Ansoff, 1983; Pearce & David, 1983; Pearce & DeNisi, 1983; Neilsen & Hayagreeva Rao, 1987; Charan, 1991). It derives this power from the unequalled, collective, and synergized influence of its members. These members, in turn, derive their power from their ability to influence the acquisition and distribution of strategic resources the term "resources" is used to include not only material, capital, and human factors, but also less tangible resources such as prestige, community legitimation, and knowledge
The dominance of the coalition is partially secured by its ability to institutionalize its power. This does not imply that the coalitions strategic directions or membership are immutable. They may change when new individuals control strategic resources or when new resources become strategic. However, the institutionalized nature of dominant coalition power is likely to support the status quo (Thompson, 1967; Pfeffer & Salancik, 1978). A coalition is held together by the members recognition of some common interests (Pfeffer, 1981), and by explicit or implicit agreements about the type of behavior which should be followed (Pennings, 1981; Pondy & Mitroff, 1979)
Furthermore, the dominant coalition is bound by the fact that the achievement of member goals usually requires interdependent action by the coalition members (Thompson, 1967) However, not all of the interests and orientations of dominant coalition members are compatible. "Side payments" are sometimes made to influential dissident members of the dominant coalition in order to hold the coalition together (Cyert & March, 1963). Example : These side payments are often in the form of commitments to policies that may be somewhat incompatible with other coalition objectives. Such incomplete rationalization is possible because goals most often receive sequential, rather than holistic attention. Thus, some incompatibility in goals and strategies is ignored. The conditions under which compatibility is enforced are important and will be explored in a later section.
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